• Act d 11;
  • allergen;
  • Bet v 1-like;
  • kirola;
  • kiwifruit

To cite this article: D’Avino R, Bernardi ML, Wallner M, Palazzo P, Camardella L, Tuppo L, Alessandri C, Breiteneder H, Ferreira F, Ciardiello MA, Mari A. Kiwifruit Act d 11 is the first member of the ripening-related protein family identified as an allergen. Allergy 2011; 66: 870–877.


Background:  Kiwifruit is an important cause of food allergy. A high amount of a protein with a molecular mass compatible with that of Bet v 1 was observed in the kiwifruit extract.

Objective:  To identify and characterize kirola, the 17-kDa protein of green kiwifruit (Act d 11).

Methods:  Act d 11 was purified from green kiwifruit. Its primary structure was obtained by direct protein sequencing. The IgE binding was investigated by skin testing, immunoblotting, inhibition tests, and detection by the ISAC microarray in an Italian cohort and in selected Bet v 1-sensitized Austrian patients. A clinical evaluation of kiwi allergy was carried out.

Results:  Act d 11 was identified as a member of the major latex protein/ripening-related protein (MLP/RRP) family. IgE binding to Act d 11 was shown by all the applied testing. Patients tested positive for Act d 11 and reporting symptoms on kiwifruit exposure were found within the Bet v 1-positive subset rather than within the population selected for highly reliable history of allergic reactions to kiwifruit. Epidemiology of Act d 11 IgE reactivity was documented in the two cohorts. IgE co-recognition of Act d 11 within the Bet v 1-like molecules is documented using the microarray IgE inhibition assay.

Conclusions:  Act d 11 is the first member of the MLP/RRP protein family to be described as an allergen. It displays IgE co-recognition with allergens belonging to the PR-10 family, including Bet v 1.