Anaphylaxis caused by Hymenoptera stings: from epidemiology to treatment
Article first published online: 13 JUN 2011
© 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S
Special Issue: The 8th Symposium on Specific Allergy (SOSA) 2010.
Volume 66, Issue Supplement s95, pages 35–37, July 2011
How to Cite
Bilò, M. B. (2011), Anaphylaxis caused by Hymenoptera stings: from epidemiology to treatment. Allergy, 66: 35–37. doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2011.02630.x
- Issue published online: 13 JUN 2011
- Article first published online: 13 JUN 2011
- Accepted for publication 15 March 2011
- insect sting allergy;
- venom immunotherapy
To cite this article: Bilò MB. Anaphylaxis caused by Hymenoptera stings: from epidemiology to treatment. Allergy 2011; 66 (Suppl. 95): 35–37.
Hymenoptera venom allergy occasionally causes fatal reactions. The prevalence of systemic reactions (SRs) is 0.3–8.9%, with anaphylaxis in 0.3–42.8% of cases. Factors contributing to reaction severity include older age, insect type, a previous less severe SR, preexisting diseases, concomitant treatments, mast cell diseases and elevated baseline tryptase serum concentration. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is highly effective, as shown by sting challenge and spontaneous field stings. Indications for VIT are based on history of an SR, positive diagnostic tests, natural history and established risk factors for a severe outcome. Current strategies for reducing adverse reactions include anti-IgE monoclonal antibody pretreatment, and purified aqueous and purified aluminium hydroxide adsorbed preparations. New strategies for VIT, mostly using recombinant allergen, are in development. Further improvements will increase the safety and efficacy of VIT.