• 1
    Freudenberg MA, Esser PR, Jakob T, Galanos C, Martin SF. Innate and adaptive immune responses in contact dermatitis: analogy with infections. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2009;144:173185.
  • 2
    Vocanson M, Hennino A, Rozieres A, Poyet G, Nicolas JF. Effector and regulatory mechanisms in allergic contact dermatitis. Allergy 2009;64:16991714.
  • 3
    De Groot AC. Patch testing: test concentrations and vehicles for 4.350 chemicals, 3rd edn. Wapserveen: acdegrootpublishing, 2008.
  • 4
    Geier J, Krautheim A, Lessmann H. [Allergological diagnostics and current allergens in occupational dermatology]. Hautarzt 2009;60:708717.
  • 5
    Uter W, Pfahlberg A, Gefeller O, Geier J, Schnuch A. Risk factors for contact allergy to nickel – results of a multifactorial analysis. Contact Dermatitis 2003;48:3338.
  • 6
    Thyssen JP, Ross-Hansen K, Menne T, Johansen JD. Patch test reactivity to metal allergens following regulatory interventions: a 33-year retrospective study. Contact Dermatitis 2010;63:102106.
  • 7
    Lombardi C, Gargioni S, Dama A, Canonica GW, Passalacqua G. Euro coins and contact dermatitis. Allergy 2004;59:669670.
  • 8
    Schram SE, Warshaw EM. Genetics of nickel allergic contact dermatitis. Dermatitis 2007;18:125133.
  • 9
    Thyssen JP, Menne T. Metal allergy – a review on exposures, penetration, genetics, prevalence, and clinical implications. Chem Res Toxicol 2010;23:309318.
  • 10
    Schnuch A, Westphal G, Mossner R, Uter W, Reich K. Genetic factors in contact allergy – review and future goals. Contact Dermatitis 2011;64:223.
  • 11
    Thyssen JP, Carlsen BC, Menne T, Linneberg A, Nielsen NH, Meldgaard M et al. Filaggrin null mutations increase the risk and persistence of hand eczema in subjects with atopic dermatitis: results from a general population study. Br J Dermatol 2010;163:115120.
  • 12
    Martin SF, Esser PR. Avoiding contact allergens: from basic research to the in vitro identification of contact allergens. Allergologie 2011.
  • 13
    Vemula PK, Anderson RR, Karp JM. Nanoparticles reduce nickel allergy by capturing metal ions. Nat Nanotechnol 2011;6:291295.
  • 14
    Martin SF. T lymphocyte-mediated immune responses to chemical haptens and metal ions: implications for allergic and autoimmune disease. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2004;134:186198.
  • 15
    Bergstrom MA, Ott H, Carlsson A, Neis M, Zwadlo-Klarwasser G, Jonsson CA et al. A skin-like cytochrome P450 cocktail activates prohaptens to contact allergenic metabolites. J Invest Dermatol 2007;127:11451153.
  • 16
    Ott H, Bergstrom MA, Heise R, Skazik C, Zwadlo-Klarwasser G, Merk HF et al. Cutaneous metabolic activation of carvoxime, a self-activating, skin-sensitizing prohapten. Chem Res Toxicol 2009;22:399405.
  • 17
    Skazik C, Heise R, Ott H, Czaja K, Marquardt Y, Merk HF et al. Active transport of contact allergens in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells is mediated by multidrug resistance related proteins. Arch Biochem Biophys 2011;508:212216.
  • 18
    Karlberg AT, Bergstrom MA, Borje A, Luthman K, Nilsson JL. Allergic contact dermatitis – formation, structural requirements, and reactivity of skin sensitizers. Chem Res Toxicol 2008;21:5369.
  • 19
    Martin SF, Jakob T. From innate to adaptive immune responses in contact hypersensitivity. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;8:289293.
  • 20
    Martin SF. Allergic contact dermatitis: it “smells” like an infection. Allergo J 2011;20:8186.
  • 21
    Dudda JC, Simon JC, Martin S. Dendritic cell immunization route determines CD8+ T cell trafficking to inflamed skin: role for tissue microenvironment and dendritic cells in establishment of T cell-homing subsets. J Immunol 2004;172:857863.
  • 22
    Dudda JC, Lembo A, Bachtanian E, Huehn J, Siewert C, Hamann A et al. Dendritic cells govern induction and reprogramming of polarized tissue-selective homing receptor patterns of T cells: important roles for soluble factors and tissue microenvironments. Eur J Immunol 2005;35:10561065.
  • 23
    Edele F, Molenaar R, Gutle D, Dudda JC, Jakob T, Homey B et al. Cutting edge: instructive role of peripheral tissue cells in the imprinting of T cell homing receptor patterns. J Immunol 2008;181:37453749.
  • 24
    Iwasaki A, Medzhitov R. Regulation of adaptive immunity by the innate immune system. Science 2010;327:291295.
  • 25
    Martin SF, Merfort I, Thierse HJ. Interactions of chemicals and metal ions with proteins and role for immune responses. Mini Rev Med Chem 2006;6:247255.
  • 26
    Bruchhausen S, Zahn S, Valk E, Knop J, Becker D. Thiol antioxidants block the activation of antigen-presenting cells by contact sensitizers. J Invest Dermatol 2003;121:10391044.
  • 27
    Hirota M, Suzuki M, Hagino S, Kagatani S, Sasaki Y, Aiba S et al. Modification of cell-surface thiols elicits activation of human monocytic cell line THP-1: possible involvement in effect of haptens 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and nickel sulfate. J Toxicol Sci 2009;34:139150.
  • 28
    Kagatani S, Sasaki Y, Hirota M, Mizuashi M, Suzuki M, Ohtani T et al. Oxidation of cell surface thiol groups by contact sensitizers triggers the maturation of dendritic cells. J Invest Dermatol 2009;130:175183.
  • 29
    Copple IM, Goldring CE, Jenkins RE, Chia AJ, Randle LE, Hayes JD et al. The hepatotoxic metabolite of acetaminophen directly activates the Keap1-Nrf2 cell defense system. Hepatology 2008;48:12921301.
  • 30
    Copple IM, Goldring CE, Kitteringham NR, Park BK. The keap1-nrf2 cellular defense pathway: mechanisms of regulation and role in protection against drug-induced toxicity. Handb Exp Pharmacol 2010;196:233266.
  • 31
    Dinkova-Kostova AT, Holtzclaw WD, Kensler TW. The role of Keap1 in cellular protective responses. Chem Res Toxicol 2005;18:17791791.
  • 32
    Kensler TW, Wakabayashi N, Biswal S. Cell survival responses to environmental stresses via the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2007;47:89116.
  • 33
    Natsch A, Emter R. Skin sensitizers induce antioxidant response element dependent genes: application to the in vitro testing of the sensitization potential of chemicals. Toxicol Sci 2008;102:110119.
  • 34
    Ade N, Leon F, Pallardy M, Peiffer JL, Kerdine-Romer S, Tissier MH et al. HMOX1 and NQO1 genes are upregulated in response to contact sensitizers in dendritic cells and THP-1 cell line: role of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway. Toxicol Sci 2009;107:451460.
  • 35
    Natsch A. The Nrf2-Keap1-ARE toxicity pathway as a cellular sensor for skin sensitizers – functional relevance and a hypothesis on innate reactions to skin sensitizers. Toxicol Sci 2010;113:284292.
  • 36
    Emter R, Ellis G, Natsch A. Performance of a novel keratinocyte-based reporter cell line to screen skin sensitizers in vitro. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2010;245:281290.
  • 37
    McKim JM Jr, Keller DJ 3rd, Gorski JR. A new in vitro method for identifying chemical sensitizers combining peptide binding with ARE/EpRE-mediated gene expression in human skin cells. Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2010;29:171192.
  • 38
    Lass C, Vocanson M, Wagner S, Schempp CM, Nicolas JF, Merfort I et al. Anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory mechanisms prevent contact hypersensitivity to Arnica montana L. Exp Dermatol 2008;17:849857.
  • 39
    Lass C, Merfort I, Martin SF. In vitro and in vivo analysis of pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of weak and strong contact allergens. Exp Dermatol 2010;19:10071013.
  • 40
    Garcia-Pineres AJ, Castro V, Mora G, Schmidt TJ, Strunck E, Pahl HL et al. Cysteine 38 in p65/NF-kappaB plays a crucial role in DNA binding inhibition by sesquiterpene lactones. J Biol Chem 2001;276:3971339720.
  • 41
    Heiss K, Junkes C, Guerreiro N, Swamy M, Camacho-Carvajal MM, Schamel WW et al. Subproteomic analysis of metal-interacting proteins in human B cells. Proteomics 2005;5:36143622.
  • 42
    Megherbi R, Kiorpelidou E, Foster B, Rowe C, Naisbitt DJ, Goldring CE et al. Role of protein haptenation in triggering maturation events in the dendritic cell surrogate cell line THP-1. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009;238:120132.
  • 43
    Kim D, Kim YJ, Seo JN, Kim J, Lee Y, Park CS et al. 2,4-Dinitrofluorobenzene modifies cellular proteins and induces macrophage inflammatory protein-2 gene expression via reactive oxygen species production in RAW 264.7 cells. Immunol Invest 2009;38:132152.
  • 44
    Hirota M, Motoyama A, Suzuki M, Yanagi M, Kitagaki M, Kouzuki H et al. Changes of cell-surface thiols and intracellular signaling in human monocytic cell line THP-1 treated with diphenylcyclopropenone. J Toxicol Sci 2010;35:871879.
  • 45
    Grabbe S, Steinert M, Mahnke K, Schwartz A, Luger TA, Schwarz T. Dissection of antigenic and irritative effects of epicutaneously applied haptens in mice. Evidence that not the antigenic component but nonspecific proinflammatory effects of haptens determine the concentration-dependent elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis. J Clin Invest 1996;98:11581164.
  • 46
    Seidel-Guyenot W, Perschon S, Dechant N, Alt R, Knop J, Steinbrink K. Low zone tolerance induced by systemic application of allergens inhibits Tc1-mediated skin inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;117:11701177.
  • 47
    Bonneville M, Chavagnac C, Vocanson M, Rozieres A, Benetiere J, Pernet I et al. Skin contact irritation conditions the development and severity of allergic contact dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 2007;127:14301435.
  • 48
    Watanabe H, Gehrke S, Contassot E, Roques S, Tschopp J, Friedmann PS et al. Danger signaling through the inflammasome acts as a master switch between tolerance and sensitization. J Immunol 2008;180:58265832.
  • 49
    Janeway CA Jr. Approaching the asymptote? Evolution and revolution in immunology. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 1989;54(Pt 1):113.
  • 50
    Matzinger P. Tolerance, danger, and the extended family. Annu Rev Immunol 1994;12:9911045.
  • 51
    Matzinger P. The danger model: a renewed sense of self. Science 2002;296:301305.
  • 52
    Fukata M, Vamadevan AS, Abreu MT. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod-like receptors (NLRs) in inflammatory disorders. Semin Immunol 2009;21:242253.
  • 53
    Chen G, Shaw MH, Kim YG, Nunez G. NOD-like receptors: role in innate immunity and inflammatory disease. Annu Rev Pathol 2009;4:365398.
  • 54
    Martinon F, Mayor A, Tschopp J. The inflammasomes: guardians of the body. Annu Rev Immunol 2009;27:229265.
  • 55
    D’Autreaux B, Toledano MB. ROS as signaling molecules: mechanisms that generate specificity in ROS homeostasis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2007;8:813824.
  • 56
    Lambeth JD, Krause KH, Clark RA. NOX enzymes as novel targets for drug development. Semin Immunopathol 2008;30:339363.
  • 57
    Naik E, Dixit VM. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species drive proinflammatory cytokine production. J Exp Med 2011;208:417420.
  • 58
    Seong SY, Matzinger P. Hydrophobicity: an ancient damage-associated molecular pattern that initiates innate immune responses. Nat Rev Immunol 2004;4:469478.
  • 59
    Kawai T, Akira S. The role of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on Toll-like receptors. Nat Immunol 2010;11:373384.
  • 60
    Martin SF, Dudda JC, Bachtanian E, Lembo A, Liller S, Durr C et al. Toll-like receptor and IL-12 signaling control susceptibility to contact hypersensitivity. J Exp Med 2008;205:21512162.
  • 61
    Grohmann U, Belladonna ML, Bianchi R, Orabona C, Ayroldi E, Fioretti MC et al. IL-12 acts directly on DC to promote nuclear localization of NF-kappaB and primes DC for IL-12 production. Immunity 1998;9:315323.
  • 62
    Valenzuela J, Schmidt C, Mescher M. The roles of IL-12 in providing a third signal for clonal expansion of naive CD8 T cells. J Immunol 2002;169:68426849.
  • 63
    Schmidt CS, Mescher MF. Peptide antigen priming of naive, but not memory, CD8 T cells requires a third signal that can be provided by IL-12. J Immunol 2002;168:55215529.
  • 64
    Klekotka PA, Yang L, Yokoyama WM. Contrasting roles of the IL-1 and IL-18 receptors in MyD88-dependent contact hypersensitivity. J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:184191.
  • 65
    Thierse HJ, Gamerdinger K, Junkes C, Guerreiro N, Weltzien HU. T cell receptor (TCR) interaction with haptens: metal ions as non-classical haptens. Toxicology 2005;209:101107.
  • 66
    Matsue H, Edelbaum D, Shalhevet D, Mizumoto N, Yang C, Mummert ME et al. Generation and function of reactive oxygen species in dendritic cells during antigen presentation. J Immunol 2003;171:30103018.
  • 67
    Mehrotra P, Mishra KP, Raman G, Banerjee G. Differential regulation of free radicals (reactive oxygen and nitrogen species) by contact allergens and irritants in human keratinocyte cell line. Toxicol Mech Methods 2005;15:343350.
  • 68
    Soltes L, Mendichi R, Kogan G, Schiller J, Stankovska M, Arnhold J. Degradative action of reactive oxygen species on hyaluronan. Biomacromolecules 2006;7:659668.
  • 69
    Stern R, Kogan G, Jedrzejas MJ, Soltes L. The many ways to cleave hyaluronan. Biotechnol Adv 2007;25:537557.
  • 70
    Sorokin L. The impact of the extracellular matrix on inflammation. Nat Rev Immunol 2010;10:712723.
  • 71
    Schaefer L, Babelova A, Kiss E, Hausser HJ, Baliova M, Krzyzankova M et al. The matrix component biglycan is proinflammatory and signals through Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 in macrophages. J Clin Invest 2005;115:22232233.
  • 72
    Babelova A, Moreth K, Tsalastra-Greul W, Zeng-Brouwers J, Eickelberg O, Young MF et al. Biglycan, a danger signal that activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via toll-like and P2X receptors. J Biol Chem 2009;284:2403524048.
  • 73
    Gao F, Koenitzer JR, Tobolewski JM, Jiang D, Liang J, Noble PW et al. Extracellular superoxide dismutase inhibits inflammation by preventing oxidative fragmentation of hyaluronan. J Biol Chem 2008;283:60586066.
  • 74
    Jiang D, Liang J, Fan J, Yu S, Chen S, Luo Y et al. Regulation of lung injury and repair by Toll-like receptors and hyaluronan. Nat Med 2005;11:11731179.
  • 75
    Bollyky PL, Falk BA, Wu RP, Buckner JH, Wight TN, Nepom GT. Intact extracellular matrix and the maintenance of immune tolerance: high molecular weight hyaluronan promotes persistence of induced CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. J Leukoc Biol 2009;86:567572.
  • 76
    Termeer C, Benedix F, Sleeman J, Fieber C, Voith U, Ahrens T et al. Oligosaccharides of Hyaluronan activate dendritic cells via toll-like receptor 4. J Exp Med 2002;195:99111.
  • 77
    Scheibner KA, Lutz MA, Boodoo S, Fenton MJ, Powell JD, Horton MR. Hyaluronan fragments act as an endogenous danger signal by engaging TLR2. J Immunol 2006;177:12721281.
  • 78
    Jiang D, Liang J, Noble PW. Hyaluronan as an immune regulator in human diseases. Physiol Rev 2011;91:221264.
  • 79
    Monzon ME, Fregien N, Schmid N, Falcon NS, Campos M, Casalino-Matsuda SM et al. Reactive oxygen species and hyaluronidase 2 regulate airway epithelial hyaluronan fragmentation. J Biol Chem 2010;285:2612626134.
  • 80
    Fieber C, Baumann P, Vallon R, Termeer C, Simon JC, Hofmann M et al. Hyaluronan-oligosaccharide-induced transcription of metalloproteases. J Cell Sci 2004;117(Pt 2):359367.
  • 81
    Gariboldi S, Palazzo M, Zanobbio L, Selleri S, Sommariva M, Sfondrini L et al. Low molecular weight hyaluronic acid increases the self-defense of skin epithelium by induction of beta-defensin 2 via TLR2 and TLR4. J Immunol 2008;181:21032110.
  • 82
    Di Nardo A, Braff MH, Taylor KR, Na C, Granstein RD, McInturff JE et al. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides block dendritic cell TLR4 activation and allergic contact sensitization. J Immunol 2007;178:18291834.
  • 83
    Morioka Y, Yamasaki K, Leung D, Gallo RL. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides inhibit hyaluronan-induced cytokine release and modulate chronic allergic dermatitis. J Immunol 2008;181:39153922.
  • 84
    Spiewak R, Pietowska J, Curzytek K. Nickel: a unique allergen – from molecular structure to European legislation. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2007;3:851859.
  • 85
    Goebeler M, Meinardus-Hager G, Roth J, Goerdt S, Sorg C. Nickel chloride and cobalt chloride, two common contact sensitizers, directly induce expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule (ELAM-1) by endothelial cells. J Invest Dermatol 1993;100:759765.
  • 86
    Goebeler M, Trautmann A, Voss A, Brocker EV, Toksoy A, Gillitzer R. Differential and sequential expression of multiple chemokines during elicitation of allergic contact hypersensitivity. Am J Pathol 2001;158:431440.
  • 87
    Goebeler M, Roth J, Brocker EB, Sorg C, Schulze-Osthoff K. Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and gene expression in human endothelial cells by the common haptens nickel and cobalt. J Immunol 1995;155:24592467.
  • 88
    Viemann D, Schmidt M, Tenbrock K, Schmid S, Muller V, Klimmek K et al. The contact allergen nickel triggers a unique inflammatory and proangiogenic gene expression pattern via activation of NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. J Immunol 2007;178:31983207.
  • 89
    Goebeler M, Gillitzer R, Kilian K, Utzel K, Brocker EB, Rapp UR et al. Multiple signaling pathways regulate NF-kappaB-dependent transcription of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene in primary endothelial cells. Blood 2001;97:4655.
  • 90
    Schmidt M, Raghavan B, Muller V, Vogl T, Fejer G, Tchaptchet S et al. Crucial role for human Toll-like receptor 4 in the development of contact allergy to nickel. Nat Immunol 2010;11:814819.
  • 91
    Artik S, von Vultee C, Gleichmann E, Schwarz T, Griem P. Nickel allergy in mice: enhanced sensitization capacity of nickel at higher oxidation states. J Immunol 1999;163:11431152.
  • 92
    Sato N, Kinbara M, Kuroishi T, Kimura K, Iwakura Y, Ohtsu H et al. Lipopolysaccharide promotes and augments metal allergies in mice, dependent on innate immunity and histidine decarboxylase. Clin Exp Allergy 2007;37:743751.
  • 93
    Gamerdinger K, Moulon C, Karp DR, Van Bergen J, Koning F, Wild D et al. A new type of metal recognition by human T cells: contact residues for peptide-independent bridging of T cell receptor and major histocompatibility complex by nickel. J Exp Med 2003;197:13451353.
  • 94
    Lu L, Vollmer J, Moulon C, Weltzien HU, Marrack P, Kappler J. Components of the ligand for a Ni++ reactive human T cell clone. J Exp Med 2003;197:567574.
  • 95
    Kimber I, Basketter DA, Gerberick GF, Ryan CA, Dearman RJ. Chemical allergy: translating biology into hazard characterization. Toxicol Sci 2011;120(Suppl 1):S238S268.
  • 96
    Shornick LP, De Togni P, Mariathasan S, Goellner J, Strauss-Schoenberger J, Karr RW et al. Mice deficient in IL-1beta manifest impaired contact hypersensitivity to trinitrochlorobenzone. J Exp Med 1996;183:14271436.
  • 97
    Antonopoulos C, Cumberbatch M, Dearman RJ, Daniel RJ, Kimber I, Groves RW. Functional caspase-1 is required for Langerhans cell migration and optimal contact sensitization in mice. J Immunol 2001;166:36723677.
  • 98
    Antonopoulos C, Cumberbatch M, Mee JB, Dearman RJ, Wei XQ, Liew FY et al. IL-18 is a key proximal mediator of contact hypersensitivity and allergen-induced Langerhans cell migration in murine epidermis. J Leukoc Biol 2008;83:361367.
  • 99
    Sutterwala FS, Ogura Y, Szczepanik M, Lara-Tejero M, Lichtenberger GS, Grant EP et al. Critical role for NALP3/CIAS1/Cryopyrin in innate and adaptive immunity through its regulation of caspase-1. Immunity 2006;24:317327.
  • 100
    Watanabe H, Gaide O, Petrilli V, Martinon F, Contassot E, Roques S et al. Activation of the IL-1beta-processing inflammasome is involved in contact hypersensitivity. J Invest Dermatol 2007;127:19561963.
  • 101
    Weber FC, Esser PR, Muller T, Ganesan J, Pellegatti P, Simon MM et al. Lack of the purinergic receptor P2X(7) results in resistance to contact hypersensitivity. J Exp Med 2010;207:26092619.
  • 102
    Burnstock G. Purine and pyrimidine receptors. Cell Mol Life Sci 2007;64:14711483.
  • 103
    Surprenant A, North RA. Signaling at purinergic P2X receptors. Annu Rev Physiol 2009;71:333359.
  • 104
    Deaglio S, Dwyer KM, Gao W, Friedman D, Usheva A, Erat A et al. Adenosine generation catalyzed by CD39 and CD73 expressed on regulatory T cells mediates immune suppression. J Exp Med 2007;204:12571265.
  • 105
    Dwyer KM, Deaglio S, Gao W, Friedman D, Strom TB, Robson SC. CD39 and control of cellular immune responses. Purinergic Signal 2007;3:171180.
  • 106
    Mizumoto N, Kumamoto T, Robson SC, Sevigny J, Matsue H, Enjyoji K et al. CD39 is the dominant Langerhans cell-associated ecto-NTPDase: modulatory roles in inflammation and immune responsiveness. Nat Med 2002;8:358365.
  • 107
    Ring S, Oliver SJ, Cronstein BN, Enk AH, Mahnke K. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress contact hypersensitivity reactions through a CD39, adenosine-dependent mechanism. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;123:128796.e2.
  • 108
    Granstein RD, Ding W, Huang J, Holzer A, Gallo RL, Di Nardo A et al. Augmentation of cutaneous immune responses by ATP gamma S: purinergic agonists define a novel class of immunologic adjuvants. J Immunol 2005;174:77257731.
  • 109
    Arthur JC, Lich JD, Ye Z, Allen IC, Gris D, Wilson JE et al. Cutting edge: NLRP12 controls dendritic and myeloid cell migration to affect contact hypersensitivity. J Immunol 2010;185:45154519.
  • 110
    Wang L, Manji GA, Grenier JM, Al-Garawi A, Merriam S, Lora JM et al. PYPAF7, a novel PYRIN-containing Apaf1-like protein that regulates activation of NF-kappa B and caspase-1-dependent cytokine processing. J Biol Chem 2002;277:2987429880.
  • 111
    Lich JD, Williams KL, Moore CB, Arthur JC, Davis BK, Taxman DJ et al. Monarch-1 suppresses non-canonical NF-kappaB activation and p52-dependent chemokine expression in monocytes. J Immunol 2007;178:12561260.
  • 112
    Basketter DA, Gerberick F, Kimber I. The local lymph node assay and the assessment of relative potency: status of validation. Contact Dermatitis 2007;57:7075.
  • 113
    Jowsey IR, Basketter DA, Westmoreland C, Kimber I. A future approach to measuring relative skin sensitising potency: a proposal. J Appl Toxicol 2006;26:341350.
  • 114
    Gerberick GF, Vassallo JD, Bailey RE, Chaney JG, Morrall SW, Lepoittevin JP. Development of a peptide reactivity assay for screening contact allergens. Toxicol Sci 2004;81:332343. Epub.2004.Jul.14.
  • 115
    Gerberick GF, Vassallo JD, Foertsch LM, Price BB, Chaney JG, Lepoittevin JP. Quantification of chemical peptide reactivity for screening contact allergens: a classification tree model approach. Toxicol Sci 2007;97:417427.
  • 116
    Ashikaga T, Sakaguchi H, Sono S, Kosaka N, Ishikawa M, Nukada Y et al. A comparative evaluation of in vitro skin sensitisation tests: the human cell-line activation test (h-CLAT) versus the local lymph node assay (LLNA). Altern Lab Anim 2010;38:275284.
  • 117
    Aeby P, Ashikaga T, Bessou-Touya S, Schepky A, Gerberick F, Kern P et al. Identifying and characterizing chemical skin sensitizers without animal testing: Colipa’s research and method development program. Toxicol In Vitro 2010;24:14651473.
  • 118
    Galbiati V, Mitjans M, Lucchi L, Viviani B, Galli CL, Marinovich M et al. Further development of the NCTC 2544 IL-18 assay to identify in vitro contact allergens. Toxicol In Vitro 2010;25:724732.
  • 119
    Ouwehand K, Spiekstra SW, Reinders J, Scheper RJ, de Gruijl TD, Gibbs S. Comparison of a novel CXCL12/CCL5 dependent migration assay with CXCL8 secretion and CD86 expression for distinguishing sensitizers from non-sensitizers using MUTZ-3 Langerhans cells. Toxicol In Vitro 2010;24:578585.
  • 120
    Vocanson M, Cluzel-Tailhardat M, Poyet G, Valeyrie M, Chavagnac C, Levarlet B et al. Depletion of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in CD25+ cells allows for the sensitive in vitro screening of contact allergens. J Invest Dermatol 2008;128:21192122.
  • 121
    Dietz L, Esser PR, Schmucker SS, Goette I, Richter A, Schnolzer M et al. Tracking human contact allergens: from mass spectrometric identification of peptide-bound reactive small chemicals to chemical-specific naive human T-cell priming. Toxicol Sci 2010;117:336347.
  • 122
    Martin SF, Esser PR, Schmucker S, Dietz L, Naisbitt DJ, Park BK et al. T-cell recognition of chemicals, protein allergens and drugs: towards the development of in vitro assays. Cell Mol Life Sci 2010;67:41714184.
  • 123
    Friedmann PS, Pickard C. Quantifying human susceptibility to contact sensitization; risk assessments now and in the future. Contact Dermatitis 2010;63:237247.
  • 124
    Vroling AB, Fokkens WJ, van Drunen CM. How epithelial cells detect danger: aiding the immune response. Allergy 2008;63:11101123.