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Keywords:

  • Allergy;
  • anaphylaxis;
  • elicitors;
  • symptoms;
  • risk factors

Abstract

Background

Anaphylaxis is the most severe manifestation of an IgE-dependent allergy. Standardized acquired clinical data from large cohorts of well-defined cases are not available. The aim of this study was to analyse the symptom profile and risk factors of anaphylaxis in a large Central European cohort.

Methods

We acquired data from patients in Germany, Austria and Switzerland who experienced a severe allergic reaction defined by the onset of severe pulmonary and/or severe cardiovascular symptoms. The data were gained via an online questionnaire from 83 medical centres specialized in allergy. Data were collected from 2006 to 2010 and analysed by using a multinomial regression model.

Results

A total of 2012 paediatric and adult patients were included into the present analysis. The skin (84%) was the most frequently affected organ followed by the cardiovascular (72%) and the respiratory (68%) system. The regression model analysing the onset of cardiovascular versus respiratory symptoms revealed a strong impact of age (adjusted OR = 6.08; 95% CI, 3.35–11.01; P < 0.001). Furthermore, the elicitor food (adjusted OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.21–0.41, P < 0.001) and the presence of atopic diseases (adjusted OR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.40–0.73, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with the onset of respiratory symptoms.

Conclusion

Data from individuals who experienced anaphylaxis can support the identification of risk factors. The present study indicates that age, the elicitor itself and the presence of atopic diseases have an impact on the symptom profile of anaphylaxis. Identifying further risk factors of anaphylaxis is of significant importance for clinical practice in the future.