Decreased serum LL-37 and vitamin D3 levels in atopic dermatitis: relationship between IL-31 and oncostatin M
Naoko Kanda, Department of Dermatology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 11-1, Kaga-2, Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan.
Skin lesions with atopic dermatitis (AD) are associated with dysregulated expression of LL-37 and enhanced expression of IL-22, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-25, IL-31, and oncostatin M. Vitamin D3 enhances LL-37 production in keratinocytes. This study aimed to examine the serum levels of LL-37 and vitamin D3 and their regulation of cytokine production in patients with AD.
Serum levels of LL-37 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were analyzed by ELISA. The effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or LL-37 on cytokine production in T cells or keratinocytes were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR.
Serum levels of LL-37 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were decreased in patients with AD compared to normal donors and were correlated in both groups. Serum levels of LL-37 correlated with those of oncostatin M and IL-31 in normal donors and patients with AD, while 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels did so only in normal donors. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 increased LL-37 production in human keratinocytes and neutrophils. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and LL-37 enhanced the oncostatin M and IL-31 production in CD3/28-stimulated T cells, but did not alter IL-25 and TSLP production in TNF-α-stimulated keratinocytes. In CD3/28-stimulated T cells, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 reduced the IL-22 production, while LL-37 enhanced it. These effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and LL-37 were suppressed by vitamin D receptor antagonist and pertussis toxin, respectively.
Systemic vitamin D3 levels are reduced in patients with AD, which may contribute to decreased systemic LL-37 levels. LL-37 may systemically potentiate the oncostatin M and IL-31 production in normal donors and patients with AD, while vitamin D3 may do so only in normal donors.