• airway disease;
  • inflammation;
  • remodeling;
  • transforming growth factor-beta


Airway diseases such as chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder are characterized by inflammation and remodeling. Among inflammatory and extracellular matrix regulatory cytokines, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) stands central, as it possesses both important immunomodulatory and fibrogenic activities, and should be considered a key for understanding inflammation and remodeling processes. This review will briefly summarize the recent findings on the role of TGF-β1, from the view points of inflammation and remodeling, and discuss the role of TGF-β in the upper and lower airway diseases. This may reveal new perspectives in the understanding of airway inflammation and remodeling processes and may open innovative treatment strategies for the regulation of TGF-β1.