Case reports of malformations associated with maternal diabetes: history and critique


  • Dr. Harold Kalter

    Corresponding author
    1. Children's Hospital Research Foundation and Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
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Division of Basic Science Research (PAV 3–16), Children's Hospital Research Foundation, Elland and Bethesda Avenues, Cincinnati, OH 45229-2899, USA


Several malformations and malformation complexes have been alleged to be associated with maternal type 1 diabetes mellitus: in particular, sacral dysplasia, caudal regression/sirenomelia, femoral dysplasia, and holoprosencephaly. For some of the malformations the claim rests on case material, and for others on theoretical considerations. The history and evolution of these ideas are presented.