Developmental Biology: Frontiers for Clinical Genetics: Limb development: molecular dysmorphology is at hand!


2 University of Michigan, Department of Human Genetics, Med. Sci. II, M4708, Ann Arbor, Ml 48109–0618, USA. Fax: + 1 734 763 3784; e-mail:


We present a review of limb development integrating current molecular information and selected genetic disorders to illustrate the advances made in this field over the last few years. With this knowledge, clinical geneticists can now begin to consider molecular mechanisms and pathways when investigating patients with limb malformation syndromes.