Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia; MIM 232200) is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder resulting from a deficiency of the microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), the enzyme that catalyzes the terminal step in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Various mutations in the G6Pase gene (G6PC) have been found in patients with GSD Ia. To elucidate the spectrum of the G6PC gene mutations, 13 unrelated Korean patients with GSD Ia were analyzed. We were able to identify mutant alleles in all patients, including three known mutations (727G > T, G122D, and T255I) and two novel mutations (P178A and Y128X). The frequency of the 727G > T mutation in Korean patients with GSD Ia was 81% (21/26), which was slightly lower than that (86–92%) in Japanese but much higher than that (44.4%) in Taiwan Chinese. Except one, all patients were either homozygous (9/13) or compound heterozygous (3/13) for the 727G > T mutation; the only patient without the 727G > T mutation was a compound heterozygote for the G122D and Y128X mutations. Our findings suggest that a DNA-based test can be used as the initial diagnostic approach in Korean patients clinically suspected to have GSD Ia, thereby avoiding invasive liver biopsy.