A minority of the reported cases of terminal 2q37 deletion clinically resemble Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO)/pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism and have only mild-to-moderate mental retardation. Our molecular and cytogenetic fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) findings on an additional three patients further reduce the size of the minimal critical region deleted in this syndrome to about 3 Mb. This region includes the G-protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35), glypican 1 (GPC1), and serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) genes on 2q37.3. We have further defined several polymorphic variants within the coding region and flanking regions of GPR35 gene, which could potentially be useful for rapid detection of GPR35 gene deletion. We postulate that the absence of GPR35 may, at least partly, account for the phenotypic resemblance to the AHO. We also believe that the deletion of GPR35 could be responsible for the entity brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome (OMIM #600430), which was coined based on the above minority of patients with terminal 2q37 deletion. We recommend that every patient with AHO phenotype should undergo 2q subtelomeric FISH screen and subsequently a molecular study on the GPR35 gene. GPC1 and/or STK25 haploinsufficiency may also contribute to the AHO-like phenotype.