Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. In DN patients, triglyceride (TG) level is elevated and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, which hydrolyzes TG, is decreased. The LPL S447X and apolipoprotein E (APOE) exon 4 polymorphisms affect TG levels, and the APOC3−455T>C polymorphism affects LPL activity. Our aim was to examine the association of these polymorphisms with nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. We examined these polymorphisms in a case-control study of type 2 diabetic patients including 374 with DN and 392 without DN. LPL 447X-containing genotypes (447X+) were significantly decreased in DN patients [18.6 vs 25.6%, odds ratio (OR) = 0.66, p = 0.02], as were APOEɛ3/ɛ3 genotypes (64.8 vs 73.1%, OR = 0.68, p = 0.01). In addition, combinations of genotypes [APOEɛ3/ɛ3 and LPL 447X+ (OR = 0.56), APOC3 CC and LPL 447X+ (OR = 0.31), APOEɛ3/ɛ3 and APOC3 CC (OR = 0.61] were protective for DN compared with the most common combination of the respective polymorphisms. Our findings suggest the importance of interactions among lipid genes in modulating the risk of DN.