Acute recurrent/chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a complex multigenic disease. This is a case–control study consisting of 25 Greek patients with CP and a control population of 236 healthy Greek subjects. The whole coding area and neighboring intronic regions of the three genes were screened. Seventeen of 25 patients (68%) had mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene: nine compound heterozygotes with either mild or severe mutations and eight heterozygotes. Four patients (16%) carried CFTR-modulating haplotypes V470-TG11-T5 and V470-TG12-T7. All were negative for PRSS1 gene mutations, while variants c.486C/T and c.738C/T were found in nine patients each, three homozygotes for the minor alleles. Two carried SPINK1 gene mutation p.N34S, one being transheterozygote with CFTR mutation p.F1052V. The promoter variant −253T>C was found in four individuals (one homozygous for the minor allele), all four being transheterozygotes with mutations in the CFTR gene as well. Finally two carried c.272C/T in the 3′ untranslated region, one being a p.N34S carrier as well. In total, 80% (20/25) of patients had a molecular defect in one or both of the CFTR and SPINK1 genes, suggesting that mutations/variants in the CFTR plus or minus mutations in the SPINK1, but not the PRSS1 gene, may confer a high risk for recurrent pancreatitis.