This study aimed to investigate genotype and phenotype in males affected with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) and in female carriers, to analyse a possible genotype–phenotype correlation, and to analyse a possible relation between severity of the symptoms and the X-chromosome inactivation pattern in female carriers. The study group comprised 67 patients from 19 families (24 affected males and 43 female carriers). All participants had clinical signs of ectodermal dysplasia and a disease-causing EDA mutation. The EDA gene was screened for mutations by single-stranded conformational polymorphism and direct sequencing. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis was used to detect deletions/duplications in female probands. Sixteen different EDA mutations were detected in the 19 families, nine not described previously. The MLPA analysis detected a deletion of exon 1 in one female proband. No genotype–phenotype correlations were observed, and female carriers did not exhibit a skewed X-chromosome inactivation pattern. However, in two female carriers with pronounced clinical symptoms, in whom the parental origin of each allele was known, we observed that mainly the normal allele was inactivated.