Sasa GS, Ribes-Zamora A, Nelson ND, Bertuch AA. Three novel truncating TINF2 mutations causing severe dyskeratosis congenita in early childhood.
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a telomere biology disorder characterized by a mucocutaneous triad, aplastic anemia, and predisposition to cancer. Mutations in a narrow segment of TINF2 exon 6 have been recognized to cause often-severe DC that is either sporadic or autosomal dominant. We describe three children with very early presentations of DC, including one with the severe variant known as Revesz syndrome. Although most TINF2 mutations reported to date are missense changes, each of our patients carried a novel heterozygous nonsense or frameshift mutation, revealing a new 5′ boundary to the affected gene segment in patients with DC. Examination of patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines revealed stable expression of the predicted truncated TIN2 proteins. In co-immunoprecipitation assays, the ability of a truncation mutant to interact with TRF1 was severely impaired, whereas the ability of the most common DC-associated mutant was much less affected. This suggests that the disruption of TIN2–TRF1 interaction may contribute to the severe clinical phenotype observed in the context of the TIN2 truncation mutation, but is unlikely to be the primary cause of telomere shortening associated with the more prevalent TIN2 missense mutations. Telomere flow-fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of one pedigree showed the dramatic effect a de novo nonsense TINF2 mutation had on telomere length in early development. These cases underscore the severe manifestations of truncating TINF2 mutations.