Abstract: Background: The ability of sirolimus (SRL), in combination with reduced exposure of cyclosporine, was investigated to prevent acute rejection and associated side effects.
Methods: Between June 1999 and February 2000, 70 recipients of primary one-haplotype living-related donor renal allografts were randomized to receive SRL (2 mg/d) or azathioprine (AZA) (2 mg/kg/d) combined with cyclosporine and prednisone. The primary end-point was a composite of first occurrence of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection, graft loss, or death during the first 3 months after transplantation.
Results: From week 4 to month 12, SRL patients received lower cyclosporine (week 4: 364 mg/d vs. 455 mg/d, p = 0.004; month 12: 195 mg/d vs. 255 mg/d, p = 0.038) doses and showed lower cyclosporine concentrations (week 4: 247 ng/mL vs. 309 ng/mL, p = 0.04; month 12: 143 ng/mL vs. 188 ng/mL, p = 0.045). Compared with AZA, SRL patients showed reduced 3-month primary end point (0% vs. 17.1%, p = 0.025), and reduced incidence of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection at 3 months (0% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.01) but not at 12 months (11.4% vs. 14.3%, NS). Mean creatinine at 12 months were not different (1.8 ± 0.6 vs. 1.6 ± 0.6, p = 0.23). Hyperlipidemia was the only adverse event more frequent among SRL patients (49% vs. 17%, p = 0.01). There were no differences in infections and no malignancies in both groups.
Conclusions: The combination of 2 mg fixed doses of SRL, reduced cyclosporine exposure and prednisone was associated with a low incidence of acute rejection and did not result in significantly impaired graft function compared with patients receiving AZA, standard doses of cyclosporine and prednisone.