Abstract: Recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation is a major cause of graft failure. We routinely perform preemptive interferon and ribavirin therapy in patients after living-donor liver transplantation indicated for hepatitis C-related cirrhosis. One of the obstacles for the therapy includes blood cytopenia. To overcome this problem, we recently performed splenectomy concurrently with liver transplantation. Thirty-five patients underwent liver transplantation and received preemptive therapy for hepatitis C. They were divided into two groups: those with splenectomy (group A, n = 21) and those without (group B, n = 14). There was no significant difference in the frequency of morbidity between the groups. Platelet counts were well maintained in group A patients during the therapy, and cytopenia led to the discontinuation of the therapy in one group B patient. The results of the preliminary study warrant a randomized control trial to examine the feasibility of splenectomy and preemptive viral therapy during liver transplantation for hepatitis C.