Cashion AK, Sabek O, Driscoll C, Gaber L, Tolley E, Gaber AO. Serial analysis of biomarkers of acute pancreas allograft rejection.
Clin Transplant 2010: 24: E214–E222. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Abstract: Pancreas transplant recipients experience graft loss in spite of improvements in immunosuppressant therapies and diagnostic technologies. Therefore, a method to improve detection and management of acute rejection is needed. This longitudinal study investigated the usefulness of three biomarkers, granzyme B, perforin, and human leukocyte antigen-DR alpha (HLA-DR) measured by real-time PCR on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, for their ability to detect acute rejection and its resolution in 13 recipients of pancreas allograft. Data demonstrated that pre-transplant baseline expression of biomarkers decreased following the initiation of immunosuppression. Throughout follow-up (range 3–27 months), individuals without acute rejection episodes had little variation in their biomarker levels. Recipients with biopsy-proven rejection had a significant increase in the levels of biomarkers as early as five wk before clinical rejection diagnosis. Furthermore, all seven patients with biopsy-proven rejection demonstrated a decrease in the levels of granzyme B and perforin following the increased immunosuppression for the treatment of rejection. This is the first clinical serial measurement of biomarkers in recipients of pancreas transplants. The data demonstrate that upregulation of granzyme B, perforin, and HLA-DR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells are sensitive to changes in the immune environment and could possibly be used to identify those patients at higher risk of rejection.