Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is relatively common in Jews. Three HLA antigens were significantly more frequent in 39 Israeli Jewish PV patients than in controls: A26 – 59% vs 20%; Bw38 – 61% vs 20%; and DRw4 – 90% vs 38%. The joint occurrence of A26–Bw38–DRw4 was observed in 46% of PV patients and in 10% of controls. Similar results were recently reported for Jews in the Los Angeles area. Yet, when our patient sample was grouped into Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Jews, it was evident that each of the three antigens had a higher frequency both in Ashkenazi patients and controls as compared to non-Ashkenazim. The relative risk for DRw4 in Ashkenazim was 33.8 as compared to 14.4 in the total sample of Israeli PV patients. The phenotype A26–Bw38–DRw4 was present in 57% of Ashkenazi patients and in 13% of controls. Ashkenazi Jews have the highest prevalence of PV, and HLA associations were strongest with Ashkenazi PV patients. These associations were with three antigens, all of high frequency in that group.