Abstract In this study, we present, for the first time, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I allele and haplotype frequencies at the DNA level in a sample of 142 donors from Turkey. HLA typing was performed by medium-to-high resolution polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes method. The most frequent HLA alleles at class I locus were A*0201(0.257), -B*35(0.204) and -Cw*04(0.173). A*0201-B*35-Cw*04(0.056) was the most common three-locus haplotype. Allele and haplotype frequency comparisons and neighbour-joining dendrograms, constructed using DA genetic distances and correspondence analysis using HLA-A, -B and -C, and -DRB1 allele frequencies, revealed similarities with other Mediterranean and European populations, but not with Mongol populations. These results agree with previous studies and confirm that the present day Turkish population is genetically more similar to its geographic neighbours than its historical neighbours in central Asia. The comprehensive HLA data on the Turkish population at the DNA level including up to six-locus putative haplotypes generated in this study will be useful for further studies.