Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells are involved both in control of virus infections and in elimination of tumor cells. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) either activate or inhibit NK cell-mediated cytolysis, protecting healthy cells from destruction while enabling killing of abnormal cells. To investigate whether KIR genes or genotypes are associated with cervical carcinogenesis, a nested case–control study of 65 case women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) diagnosed during a 6-year follow-up of 15,234 women and 150 control women from the same cohort that remained healthy was performed. More than 70 different genotypes were observed, and 33 of which had not been described previously. An A-genotype including KIR2DL1, KIR2DL2, KIR2DL3, KIR2DL4, KIR3DL1, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3, and KIR2DS4 was associated with increased risk of CIN (OR 6.7; 95% CI 1.7–26.3), and KIR2DL5B*002 appeared to have an inverse association with disease (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.5–2.9). There was no association of CIN with the number of activating KIR genes. There was also no association between KIR genes and type of human papilloma virus or with other CIN-related immune response genes. It was concluded that certain KIR genes and genotypes may associate with cervical neoplasia.