• autoimmunity;
  • human leukocyte antigen;
  • human leukocyte antigen-DR;
  • human leukocyte antigen-DQ;
  • linkage disequilibrium;
  • type 1 diabetes


The type 1 diabetes (T1D) component of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop (IHW) obtained microsatellite (msat) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR/DQ data on case/control and family samples through an international collaboration. The aim was to detect the effects of susceptibility loci on the HLA complex independent of the primary determinants in the class II region (HLA-DR/DQ). As part of the activity of the 14th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop (14th IHIWS), a T1D workshop was held to present analyses of the 13th IHW data and to discuss the current status of knowledge about the genetics of T1D. These data are now available online through dbMHC, a web-based resource established by the National Center for Biotechnology. Continuing work since the 13th IHW has resulted in published work showing heterogeneity of DR3 haplotypes in data sets from the 13th IHW and Human Biological Data Interchange (HBDI). In addition, we identified markers that define DRB1*1501 DQB1*0602 haplotypes conferring reduced protection from diabetes in a Swedish 13th IHW data set. Further analyses of the 13th IHW data set not only showed some significant results but also demonstrated extensive heterogeneity reminiscent of non-HLA genes. The haplotype analysis in HBDI families identified two msats with significant effects on susceptibility and statistically significant age of onset effects at class III markers that are not because of linkage disequilibrium, with class I alleles known to affect age of onset. The above studies underscore the importance of refining our understanding of susceptibility associated with genes in the HLA complex.