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Keywords:

  • cancer diagnostics and therapy;
  • human leukocyte antigen class I;
  • immune escape;
  • molecular mechanism;
  • tumor

Abstract

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I plays an important role in tumor recognition and rejection. Total or selective losses of HLA class I antigens (classified into seven HLA class I altered phenotypes) represent one of the main routes of tumor escape from immune surveillance. Abnormal expression of HLA class I has been reported in different human tumor samples with distinct underlying mechanisms. Notably, different molecular mechanisms can generate the same altered HLA class I phenotype. Here, we describe various molecular mechanisms that can lead to HLA total loss or downregulation (phenotype I) in melanoma, colorectal carcinoma and bladder cancer.