Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) was originally cloned from a rat heart allograft under chronic rejection. Data from many studies suggested an important role of AIF-1 in several inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to examine the dynamic expression of AIF-1 and its association with the pathogenesis of hepatic schistosomiasis in BALB/c mice infected with S. japonicum. The expression of AIF-1 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot and immunohistochemistry. AIF-1 and TNF-α were overexpressed in hepatic tissues at the early stage of infection, and then diminished with the length of infection. On culturing splenocytes stimulated by soluble egg antigen for 72 h, the expression of AIF-1 in infected mice was suppressed, but TNF-α increased gradually. Our results showed that AIF-1 was overexpressed in the liver of BALB/c mice infected with S. japonicum, and the interaction between AIF-1 and TNF-α or other cytokines played an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of hepatic schistosomiasis.