Background: A connection of herpesvirus periapical infection with symptomatic and large-size periapical lesions has been recognized in adult patients, but no data exist about a possible involvement of herpesviruses in severe periapical pathosis in children. Herpesviruses have the potential to elicit potent bone resorption-inducing cytokines in mammalian cells.
Aim: This study aimed to determine the occurrence of human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA, and mRNA transcripts of receptor activator of nuclear kappa B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin, core binding factor alpha-1, colony stimulating factor-1, transforming growth factor-β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in periapical symptomatic pathosis of deciduous teeth.
Material and methods: Twelve deciduous molar teeth from patients aged 2–8 years were extracted due to severe periapical infection, and granulomatous tissue adherent to the root tip of the extracted teeth was collected using a surgical knife. Non-diseased pulpal tissue, obtained from 12 teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons, served as negative control. Polymerase chain reaction assays were employed to identify herpesvirus DNA and cytokine gene expression, using established polymerase chain reaction primers and procedures.
Results: Seven (58%) of the periapical lesions yielded human cytomegalovirus and eight (67%) Epstein-Barr virus. Only one (8%) periapical lesion showed neither human cytomegalovirus nor Epstein-Barr virus. In healthy pulpal tissue, one (8%) specimen demonstrated human cytomegalovirus and another (8%) specimen revealed Epstein-Barr virus. Of the cytokines examined, RANKL expression showed significantly higher occurrence in periapical pathosis than in healthy pulpal tissue (P < 0.040). No relationship was identified between the type of herpesvirus and cytokine expression in the periapical lesions studied.
Conclusions: The present findings provide evidence of a putative role of human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of symptomatic periapical pathosis in deciduous teeth. Increased RANKL expression in periapical lesions may be of pathogenetic significance.