The aim of the study was to clarify the relationship between current pet ownership, passive smoking, and allergic diseases among the Japanese children. From 1995 to 2001, we distributed the Japanese edition of the questionnaire of the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD) to survey allergic diseases among 35,552 6-yr-old children at primary school in the city of Himeji, Japan. We analyzed the data by multiple logistic regression and calculated adjusted odds ratios for environmental factors, including passive smoking and pet (dog and/or cat) ownership. There were no significant relationships between the prevalence of asthma and current pet ownership and passive smoking. However, current cat ownership was related to a significantly lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67–0.93], allergic rhinitis (aOR: 0.71, 95% CI 0.57–0.89) and Japanese cedar pollinosis (aOR 0.57, 95% CI 0.44–0.75). Strikingly, passive smoking was also related to a significantly lower prevalence of allergic rhinitis (aOR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77–0.89) and Japanese cedar pollinosis (aOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.74–0.88). Current cat ownership was associated with a lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and Japanese cedar pollinosis. In addition, passive smoking was also associated with a lower prevalence of allergic rhinitis and Japanese cedar pollinosis.