Childhood cow's milk allergy is a diagnosis encompassing various syndromes. Antigen-immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody interaction is classically involved in mast cell degranulation in IgE-mediated food allergy, while non-IgE mediated cow's milk allergy is mostly mediated by cellular mechanisms. The diagnosis of cow's milk allergy largely relies on a good knowledge of the clinical expression of the disease. In this educational review series, we describe three cases of cow's milk allergy, first a 7-yr-old girl with persisting IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy, second a 8-month-old boy with cow's milk induced flares of atopic dermatitis, and third a 6-yr-old boy with sheep and goat milk allergy, in the absence of cow's milk allergy. The cases are discussed and summarized with more general recommendations for the clinical management of cow's milk allergy.