The spectrum of food allergy consists of a variety of different clinical pictures including immunoglobulin (Ig)E, and non-IgE food allergy as well as mixed, IgE and non-IgE disorders. In addition, eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with occasional IgE-type sensitization are increasingly recognized. As a consequence, the clinical picture of food allergy is pleomorphic and can range from chronic GI symptoms to severe anaphylaxis. The diagnosis of food allergy is mostly hampered by the lack of reliable in vitro tests for non-IgE-mediated diseases, and in most cases relies on a reoccurrence of symptoms upon re-exposure to the antigen; in general during a standardized food challenge. Currently, there is no safe and efficient treatment for food allergy and the treatment relies on avoidance diets. Priorities for research have been identified by iPAC (international Pediatric Allergy and Asthma Consortium) and outlined in this review. They include studies to better identify the pathogenesis of food allergy, including genetic aspects; studies to develop diagnostic and follow-up tests; studies for standardization of food challenges; as well as studies addressing a safe and efficient treatment of food allergy.