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Passive smoking alters circulating naïve/memory lymphocyte T-cell subpopulations in children

Authors

  • Constantine I. Vardavas,

    1. Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Greece
    2. Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht (NUTRIM), Department of Human Biology, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands
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  • Maria Plada,

    1. Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Greece
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  • Manolis Tzatzarakis,

    1. Center of Toxicology Science and Research, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Greece
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  • Ascension Marcos,

    1. Immunonutrition Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute Frio-ICTAN, Spanish Scientific Research Council, Madrid, Spain
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  • Julia Warnberg,

    1. Immunonutrition Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute Frio-ICTAN, Spanish Scientific Research Council, Madrid, Spain
    2. Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Navarra Spain
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  • Sonia Gomez-Martinez,

    1. Immunonutrition Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute Frio-ICTAN, Spanish Scientific Research Council, Madrid, Spain
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  • Christina Breidenassel,

    1. Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms Universität, Bonn, Germany
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  • Marcela Gonzalez-Gross,

    1. Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte-INEF, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
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  • Aristeidis M. Tsatsakis,

    1. Center of Toxicology Science and Research, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Greece
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  • Wim H. Saris,

    1. Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht (NUTRIM), Department of Human Biology, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands
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  • Luis A. Moreno,

    1. Escuela Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain
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  • Anthony G. Kafatos,

    1. Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Greece
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  • on behalf of the HELENA Heraklion Study Group

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    • Heraklion HELENA study group members: Anthony Kafatos, Caroline Codrington, Marıa Plada, Angeliki Papadaki, Katerina Sarri, Anna Viskadourou, Christos Hatzis, Michael Kiriakakis, George Tsibinos, Constantine I. Vardavas, Manolis Sbokos, Eva Protoyeraki and Maria Fasoulaki.


Constantine I. Vardavas, MD, RN, MPH, PhD, Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, PO Box 2208, Heraklion 71003, Crete, Greece
Tel.: +30 2810 394599
E-mail: vardavas@edu.med.uoc.gr

Abstract

Vardavas CI, Plada M, Tzatzarakis M, Marcos A, Warnberg J, Gomez-Martinez S, Breidenassel C, Gonzalez-Gross M, Tsatsakis AM, Saris WH., Moreno LA, Kafatos AG. Passive smoking alters circulating naïve/memory lymphocyte T-cell subpopulations in children.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: 1171–1178.
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S

While it has been indicated that exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) can cause a local in vivo response, limited evidence exists on its possible systemic effects from population-based levels of exposure. We investigated into a possible systemic response in the immune parameters and lymphocyte subsets, i.e. B cell (CD19+), T cell (CD4+CD45RO+, CD4+CD45RA+, CD3+CD45RO+, CD3+CD45RA+) and natural killer (CD3+CD16CD56+) lymphocyte subsets relative to exposure to SHS. Blood was drawn from healthy, verified non-smoker, adolescent subjects (n = 68, mean age 14.2) and analysed for cotinine, antioxidants and lymphocyte immunophenotyping. SHS exposure was assessed using serum cotinine. Biomarker quantified exposure to SHS was correlated with a linear dose–response reduction in the percentages of memory CD4+CD45RO+ (p = 0.005) and CD3+CD45RO+ T-cell subsets (p = 0.005 and p = 0.003, respectively) and a linear increase in the percentage of naïve CD4+CD45RA+ and CD3+CD45RA+ T-cell subsets (p = 0.006 and p = 0.003, respectively). Additionally, higher exposure to SHS was associated with a higher CD4+CD45RA+ count (532 vs. 409 cells/ml, p = 0.017). Moreover, after controlling for age, gender, body mass index and plasma antioxidants, SHS exposure was found to be associated with the percentage of circulating naïve and memory CD4+ and CD3+ T-cell subpopulations, as revealed through a linear regression analysis. These findings indicate a systemic immunological response in healthy adolescents exposed to population-based levels of SHS exposure and imply an additional biological pathway for the interaction between exposure to SHS and its adverse effects on human health.

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