Kocherscheidt L, Agossou A, Gantin RG, Hamm DM, Banla M, Soboslay PT. Cytokine and chemokine responses in adults, newborns and children exposed to Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Onchocerca volvulus and Plasmodium falciparum.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: e756–e763.
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S
Cytokine and chemokine response profiles were studied in newborns, 10-yr-old children and post partum mothers. All study groups were repeatedly exposed to Entamoeba histolytica, Onchocerca volvulus and Plasmodium falciparum infections as indicated by their Immunoglobulin (IgG) responses to parasite-specific antigens. As key indicators for regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses, Interferon (IFN)γ and regulatory IL-10 were investigated, along with the chemokines MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, MDC/CCL22 and TARC/CCL17. Entamoeba histolytica antigens (EhAg) strongly activated pro-inflammatory MIP-1α/CCL3 and MIP-1β/CCL4 responses of similar magnitude in mothers, children and neonates alike. Plasmodium falciparum antigens (PfAg) enhanced MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4 and MDC/CCL22 production in neonates, but did not trigger these chemokines in mothers or 10-yr-old children. Onchocerca volvulus antigens (OvAg) activated IFN-γ and TARC/CCL17 production in mothers but not in neonates and children. Crude IL-10 production [i.e., without subtracting spontaneous cellular release (baseline)] was highest in mothers and somewhat lower in neonates, while the lowest IL-10 amounts of all were released by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 10-yr-old children. In summary, strong inflammatory chemokine responses to plasmodia and ameba antigens in newborns and 10-yr-old children suggest that adequately balanced immune regulatory mechanisms may not have developed yet in these age groups and that repeated exposure to parasite infections and immune maturation during childhood is required to generate similar cytokine and chemokine profiles as in adults.