Perspectives on immunomodulation early in life
Article first published online: 2 FEB 2012
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Volume 23, Issue 3, pages 210–223, May 2012
How to Cite
Diesner, S. C., Förster-Waldl, E., Olivera, A., Pollak, A., Jensen-Jarolim, E. and Untersmayr, E. (2012), Perspectives on immunomodulation early in life. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 23: 210–223. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2011.01259.x
- Issue published online: 17 APR 2012
- Article first published online: 2 FEB 2012
- Accepted for publication 26 November 2011
- food allergy;
- Toll-like receptor
To cite this article: Diesner SC, Förster-Waldl E, Olivera A, Pollak A, Jensen-Jarolim E, Untersmayr E. Perspectives on immunomodulation early in life. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 23: 210–223.
The immune system early in life is characterized by immature activation and function of immune cells and a preponderance of Th2 cytokines. Together with other factors such as genetics and epigenetics, these immature immune responses might prone newborns susceptible to severe infections as well as allergic diseases. Immunomodulation therapy may have potential as therapeutic strategy against those disorders and might have implication in early-life interventions in the future. In this review, we will focus on two immunomodulatory substance classes, Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and sphingolipids, which are the focus of extensive research to date. Both TLRs and sphingolipid receptors have a very distinct distribution pattern and function on immune cells. Therefore, they can potentially modulate and balance immune responses, which might be in particular beneficial for the immaturity of the immune response early in life.