• transplantation;
  • proteomics;
  • surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization;
  • matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization;
  • mass spectrometry;
  • biomarkers

Abstract:  The field of proteomics is developing at a rapid pace in the post-genome era. Translational proteomics investigations aim to apply a combination of established methods and new technologies to learn about protein expression profiles predictive of clinical events, therapeutic response, and underlying mechanisms. However, in contrast to genetic studies and in parallel with gene expression studies, the dynamic nature of the proteome in conjunction with the challenges of accounting for post-translational modifications requires the translational proteomics investigator to understand the strengths and limitations of proteomics approaches. In this review, we provide an overview of proteomics approaches and techniques, and proteomics informatics for clinical transplantation investigators. We also review recent publications pertaining to transplantation proteomics, and discuss the implications and utility of urine proteomics for non-invasive investigation of transplant outcomes.