• bone marrow transplantation;
  • hematopoietic stem cell transplantation;
  • unrelated donor;
  • childhood;
  • acute myeloid leukemia

Abstract:  We retrospectively investigated the outcomes of HLA-matched unrelated BMT (MU-BMT, n = 13) and HLA-identical sibling donor BMT (MS-BMT, n = 17) for childhood AML in CR1 between June 2002 and August 2005. Engraftment of neutrophil and platelet did not differ between the two transplant groups. The cumulative incidence of grade II–IV acute GVHD and any chronic GVHD at three yr was not different between MS-BMT and MU-BMT. Of the 30 patients, four patients experienced relapses (three with MS-BMT, one with MU-BMT) and four patients died of transplant-related complications (two with MS-BMT, two with MU-BMT). A total of 23 patients survived with a median follow-up of 43.2 months. The Kaplan–Meier estimates for EFS rates at three yr were 71% and 77% for MS-BMT and MU-BMT, respectively, and the OS rates were 76% and 77% for MS-BMT and MU-BMT, respectively. The outcome of HLA-matched unrelated BMT is comparable to that of HLA-identical sibling BMT for childhood AML in CR1. HLA-matched unrelated BMT may be recommended for patients who have AML in CR1 without an HLA-matched sibling donor.