Derakhshan A, Behbahan AG, Lotfi M, Omrani G-H, Fallahzadeh M-H, Basiratnia M, Al-Hashemi GH. Bone mineral disorders in pediatric and adolescent renal transplant recipients.
Pediatr Transplantation 2011: 15: 367–375. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Abstract: Incomplete resolution of abnormalities of mineral metabolism associated with CRF results in the relatively high prevalence of ROD in pediatric kidney recipients. This non-randomized, cross-sectional, and analytic–descriptive study on bone density, vitamin D, and mineral metabolism was performed in 57 children and adolescents who had received a total of 60 renal allografts in Shiraz, Iran. The height and weight of the patients were measured; their serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), Alk-P, PTH, 25(OH)-vitamin D3, BUN, creatinine, and electrolyte levels were analyzed, and a complete blood count was performed. In addition, standard radiologic bone assessments, which included conventional left hand–wrist radiography and bone mineral densitometry by the DXA technique, were carried out. Special pediatric software was used for age-related interpretation of the Z-scores of BMD. SPSS® software (version 15) was used for statistical analyses. We studied 57 patients (27 males [47.4%]) with a mean age of 18.7 ± 4.25 (9–27) yr and a mean age at transplantation of 13.1 ± 3.46 (4.5–20) yr. They had a post-transplantation follow-up of 67.1 ± 33.8 (6–132) months, and all had well-functioning allografts at enrollment. The mean height age of the patients was 11.9 ± 1.8 (6–15.5), and the mean bone age was 15.6 ± 3.3 (7–19) yr, which corresponded to mean height-age and bone-age retardations of 5.7 ± 2.3 (0.5–10.5) and 1.22 ± 1.47 (0–7) yr, respectively. Hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia were each found in nine patients (15.8%), hypophosphatemia in five (8.8%), and hypocalcemia in none of the patients. Seven out of 57 patients (12.3%) had a (Ca×P) product of more than 55 mg2/dL2. Hyperparathyroidism was found in 27 (47.3%) and vitamin D3 deficiency in four (7%) of the cases. The serum level of Alk-P was higher than the age-related normal range in 20 patients (35%). Left hand–wrist radiography showed no radiologic sign of ROD in any patient. The mean BMD Z-score was −1.77 ± 1.13 (−4.2–1.1) for the lumbar spine and −1.64 ± 0.89 (−3.9 to 1.9) for the femoral neck. “Stepwise backward regression” revealed a significant inverse correlation between the serum level of PTH and the GFR of the transplanted kidney; this correlation was independent from the influence of other variables such as Ca, P, and Alk-P (p = 0.011, β = −1.556). Bone age and height age both showed significant correlations with age at transplantation and serum levels of P (p < 0.001), but only bone age had a meaningful correlation with Alk-P (p = 0.036). The BMD Z-scores showed statistically meaningful correlations with the serum level of Alk-P, which were independent from the influence of other variables such as Ca, P, and PTH (p ≤ 0.002). Our study revealed a relatively high prevalence of bone mineral disorder in pediatric kidney recipients, which suggests the need for a routine program for periodic screening of these patients to facilitate early diagnosis of either persistent or evolving manifestations of disturbed mineral metabolism, especially ROD.