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Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Tree-Growing and Terrestrial Lichens



A comparison of lipid and fatty acid composition was made of the tree-growing lichens Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach., Parmelia saxatilis (L.) Ach. and Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Ach. and the terrestrial species Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. and Cladonia impexa Harm.

In the terrestrial species the total lipid content varied strongly during spring, while the tree-growing species showed much less variation. Phospholipid and sterol content of all lichens was unusually low. Monoglycosyl diglyceride was absent from Parmelia saxatilis. Fatty acids common to higher plants as palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid were invariably present in all lichen species. In addition large quantities of extra-long chain fatty acids like behenic acid, eicosadienoic acid and cyclic aliphatic lichen acids were present in the terrestrial species. The degree of (poly) unsaturation decreased in the order Evernia prunastri, Parmelia saxatilis. Fatty acids common to higher plants as palmitic, stearic, impexa, which decrease was compensated by an increase in extralong chain fatty acids and lichen acids. It is suggested that the lichen acids are of adaptive value for lichen species growing in the terrestrial habitats, which were characterized by extreme diurnal temperature variations. Just as the polyunsaturated fatty acids, lichen acids guarantee at lower temperatures a high flexibility of the membranes involved, at the same time as they are less susceptible to photo-oxidation at the high daytime temperatures.

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