Growth of the hemiparasite Rhinanthus serotinus (Schönh.) Oborny was greatly stimulated after attachment of the parasite to the roots of the host plant, Hordeum vulgare L. In order to find the limiting factors for the growth of Rhinanthus without a host, unattached and attached Rhinanthus plants were compared. Within I day after attachment the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and sodium increased considerably. Organic nitrogen and phosphorus compounds were rapidly synthesized in attached Rhinanthus. The accumulation of sugars in unattached Rhinanthus and the decrease in sugar content after attachment suggested that the main requirement from the host was not for carbohydrates.