Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Salome) primary leaf segments responded to the application of a putative plant growth regulator, ± jasmonic acid methylester (JA-Me). with accelerated senescence, as indicated by the loss of chlorophyll and the rapid decrease in activity and immunoreactive protein content of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBP carboxylase, EC 18.104.22.168). The senescence-promoting action of JA-Me differed in light and in darkness; e.g. the initial rates of chlorophyll and RuBP carboxylase breakdown were markedly higher in light than in darkness in the presence of 4.10−5M JA-Me. Cytokinin (benzyladenine, 4.10−5M) stopped the loss of chlorophyll and RuBP carboxylase during senescence; however, the rapid drop induced by JA-Me in the early phase of leaf segment senescence could not be prevented by concomitant or previous addition of BA. On the other hand, BA added 24 h after JA-Me application resulted in a recovery of chlorophyll and RuBP carboxylase at the later stages, indicating a possible rapid inactivation of JA-Me in the tissues. The activities of a number of other chloroplastic and cytosolic enzymes were not significantly altered in JA-Me-treated leaf segments compared with controls floated on water. Time-dependent chlorophyll decrease in isolated chloroplasts did not change upon JA-Me addition to the isolated organelles. It is suggested that JA-Me acts on chloroplast senescence by promoting cytoplasic events which eventually bring about the degradation of chloroplast constituents.