An acidic, low molecular weight protein called TA1-18 (T for Triticum. Al for aluminium and 18 for its approximate molecular weight) is induced in wheat roots that are exposed to growth-inhibiting concentrations of Al. Enhanced biosynthesis of TA1-18 began during the period 3 to 6 h after exposure to Al, and reached a maximum after 9 to 12 h of treatment. A protein with the same molecular weight and pl was also elicited during toxicity associated with Cu and Cd, with calcium deprivation, and low (3. 5) pH, but not by heat shock. TA1-18 was formed in small amounts in triticale, but was not detected in rye during exposure to growth-inhibiting levels of Al. Amino acid sequencing of trypsin fragments of TA1-18 revealed strong homology to pathogenesis-related protein PR2 from parsley cultures, with which TA1-18 also shares similar molecular weight and pl. Aluminium toxicity appears to have features in common with pathogenesis such that similar proteins are formed in response to both types of stress.