We have studied regulation of nodulation in Alnus incana (L.) Moench using double inoculations in plastic pouches and a slide technique to observe root hair deformation. Initially, the distribution of nodules between main and lateral roots appeared quite constant, independent of the concentration of inoculum (1 to 250 μg of crushed nodules plant−1). Susceptibility to infection after the second inoculation was restricted to lateral roots after the initial infections developed. When pre-existing nodules were excised before the second inoculation, subsequent nodules appeared to arise where infections had arrested at stages earlier than actual nodule emergence. We observed that root hairs formed postinoculation were very crowded and short with a pronounced deformation. No nodules were found later on this region of the root, suggesting a loss of susceptibility in this region. Split-root experiments with delays between inoculation of the first and second side of the root system showed irreversible, systemic inhibition of nodulation on the second side starting between 3 and 6 days after the inoculation of the first side. Only when compatible, infective strains were used in the first inoculation, was nodule formation inhibited after the second inoculation. We conclude that autoregulation of nodulation operates in Alnus incana and on a time scale similar to what is found in some legumes.