Influence of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) as an abiotic stress factor on plant microtubules (MTs) and involvement of nitric oxide (NO) as a secondary messenger mediating plant cell response to environmental stimuli were investigated in this study. Taking into account that endogenous NO content in plant cells has been shown to be increased under a broad range of abiotic stress factors, the effects of UV-B irradiation and also the combined action of UV-B and NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) on the MTs organization in different root cells of Arabidopsis thaliana were tested. Subsequently, realization of the MT-mediated processes such as root growth and development was studied under these conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings expressing the chimeric gene gfp-map4 were exposed to the enhanced UV-B with or without SNP or c-PTIO pretreatment. The UV-B irradiation alone led to a dose-dependent root growth inhibition and to morphological alterations of the primary root manifested in their swelling and excessive root hair formation. Moreover, dose-dependent randomization and depolymerization of MTs in both epidermal and cortical cells under the enhanced UV-B were found. However, SNP pretreatment of the UV-B irradiated A. thaliana seedlings recovered the UV-B inhibited root growth as compared to c-PTIO pretreatment. It has been shown that in 24 h after UV-B irradiation the organization of MTs in root epidermal cells of SNP-pretreated A. thaliana seedlings was partially recovered, whereas in c-PTIO-pretreated ones the organization of MTs has not been distinctly improved. Therefore, we suppose that the enhanced NO levels in plant cells can protect MTs organization as well as MT-related processes of root growth and development against disrupting effects of UV-B.