The aim of this study was to investigate the modifying influence of moderate ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation exposure on structurally different flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives during pre-harvest using kale, a leafy Brassica species with a wide spectrum of different non-acylated and acylated flavonol glycosides. Juvenile kale plants were treated with short-term (1 day), moderate UV-B radiation [0.22–0.88 kJ m−2 day−1 biologically effective UV-B (UV-BBE)]. Twenty compounds were quantified, revealing a structure-specific response of flavonol glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives to UV-B radiation. A dose- and structure-dependent response of the investigated phenolic compounds to additional UV-B radiation was found. The investigated quercetin glycosides decreased under UV-B; for kaempferol glycosides, however, the amount of sugar moieties and the flavonol glycoside hydoxycinnamic acid residue influenced the response to UV-B. Monoacylated kaempferol tetraglucosides decreased in the investigated UV-B range, whereas the monoacylated kaempferol diglucosides increased strongly with doses of 0.88 kJ m−2 day−1 UV-BBE. The UV-B-induced increase in monoacylated kaempferol triglucosides was dependent on the acylation pattern. Furthermore, the hydroxycinnamic acid glycosides disinapoyl-gentiobiose and sinapoyl-feruloyl-gentiobiose were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner under UV-B. While UV-B radiation treatments often focus on flavonol aglycones or total flavonols, our investigations were extended to structurally different non-acylated and acylated glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol.