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Polyamines (PAs) are abundant polycationic compounds involved in many physiological processes in plants, including somatic embryogenesis. This study investigates the role of PAs on cellular growth and structure of pro-embryogenic masses (PEMs), endogenous PA and proton pump activities in embryogenic suspension cultures of Araucaria angustifolia. The embryogenic suspension cultures were incubated with putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm) and the inhibitor methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), respectively (1 mM). After 24 h and 21 days, the cellular growth and structure of PEMs, endogenous PA contents and proton pump activities were analyzed. The addition of Spm reduced the cellular growth and promoted the development of PEMs in embryogenic cultures, which could be associated with a reduction in the activities of proton pumps, such as H+-ATPase P- and V-types and H+-PPases, and alterations in the endogenous PA contents. Spm significantly affected the physiology of the A. angustifolia somatic embryogenesis suspension, as it potentially affects cellular growth and structure of PEMs through the modulation of proton pump activities. This work demonstrates the involvement of exogenous PAs in the modulation of cellular growth and structure of PEMs, endogenous PA levels and proton pump activities during somatic embryogenesis. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a relationship between PAs and proton pump activities in these processes. The results obtained in this study offer new perspectives for studies addressing the role of PAs and proton pump on somatic embryogenesis in this species.