Donor-transmitted adenovirus infection causing kidney allograft nephritis and graft loss


Tomasz Kozlowski, MD, Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 4023 Burnett-Womack Bldg, CB #7211, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA
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T. Kozlowski, V. Nickeleit, K. Andreoni. Donor-transmitted adenovirus infection causing kidney allograft nephritis and graft loss.
Transpl Infect Dis 2011: 13: 168–173. All rights reserved

Abstract: Adenovirus (AdV) infection can occur early after transplantation, especially with potent immunosuppression for induction or acute rejection treatment. We present the largest case series of adult renal recipients from a single institution with AdV infection, and the first apparent case of transferred AdV infection from 1 deceased donor to 2 kidney recipients. Three patients received kidneys from 2 deceased donors: 2 from a 23-year-old donor, and the third from a 4-year-old donor. The recipients with the same donor both displayed early rejection. One who eventually lost his graft to AdV nephritis required treatment with plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab, and anti-thymocyte globulin for severe antibody-mediated rejection. The second required only steroids for acute cellular rejection and has good renal function at 7 years. The third recipient was discovered to have AdV and microabscesess on renal biopsy and required nephrectomy. In the 2 cases of graft loss, we observed sudden deterioration of graft function with rising creatinine and subsequent necrosis resulting in nephrectomy within 40 days after transplantation. AdV was detected by polymerase chain reaction in urine or serum and/or renal tissue. AdV activation after potent immunosuppression can lead to systemic infection and may trigger rejection and/or early graft loss.