• 1
    Olshansky SJ, Passaro DJ, Hershow RC et al. A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. N Engl J Med 2005: 352: 11381145.
  • 2
    Smith SC Jr. Multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Am J Med 2007: 120 (3 Suppl. 1): S3S11.
  • 3
    Lakka TA, Lakka HM, Salonen R, Kaplan GA, Salonen JT. Abdominal obesity is associated with accelerated progression of carotid atherosclerosis in men. Atherosclerosis 2001: 154: 497504.
  • 4
    Pinhas-Hamiel O, Zeitler P. Acute and chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. Lancet 2007: 369: 18231831.
  • 5
    Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999–2002. JAMA 2004: 291: 28472850.
  • 6
    Wang Y, Tussing L, Odoms-Young A et al. Obesity prevention in low socioeconomic status urban African-American adolescents: study design and preliminary findings of the HEALTH-KIDS study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006: 60: 92103.
  • 7
    Dietz WH. Health consequences of obesity in youth: childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics 1998: 101: 518525.
  • 8
    Williams CL, Hayman LL, Daniels SR et al. Cardiovascular health in childhood: a statement for health professionals from the committee on atherosclerosis, hypertension, and obesity in the young (AHOY) of the council on cardiovascular disease in the young, American Heart Association. Circulation 2002: 106: 143160.
  • 9
    Liu J, Wade TJ, Tan H. Cardiovascular risk factors and anthropometric measurements of adolescent body composition: a cross-sectional analysis of the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Int J Obes (Lond) 2007: 31: 5964.
  • 10
    Steinberger J, Daniels SR. American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young Committee (Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young). American Heart Association Diabetes Committee (Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism). Obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk in children: an American Heart Association scientific statement from the atherosclerosis, hypertension, and obesity in the young committee (council on cardiovascular disease in the young) and the diabetes committee (council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism). Circulation 2003: 107: 14481153.
  • 11
    Fagot-Campagna A, Pettitt DJ, Engelgau MM et al. Type 2 diabetes among north American children and adolescents: an epidemiologic review and a public health perspective. J Pediatr 2000: 136: 664672.
  • 12
    Yoon KH, Lee JH, Kim JW et al. Epidemic obesity and type 2 diabetes in Asia. Lancet 2006: 368: 16811688.
  • 13
    Sharma M. School-based interventions for childhood and adolescent obesity. Obes Rev 2006: 7: 261269.
  • 14
    Thomas H. Obesity prevention programs for children and youth: why are their results so modest? Health Educ Res 2006: 21: 783795.
  • 15
    Budd GM, Volpe SL. School-based obesity prevention: research, challenges, and recommendations. J Sch Health 2006: 76: 485495.
  • 16
    Doak CM, Visscher TL, Renders CM, Seidell JC. The prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a review of interventions and programmes. Obes Rev 2006: 7: 111136.
  • 17
    Flynn MA, McNeil DA, Maloff B et al. Reducing obesity and related chronic disease risk in children and youth: a synthesis of evidence with ‘best practice’ recommendations. Obes Rev 2006: 7 (Suppl. 1): 766.
  • 18
    Lytle LA, Kubik MY, Perry C, Story M, Birnbaum AS, Murray DM. Influencing healthful food choices in school and home environments: results from the TEENS study. Prev Med 2006: 43: 813.
  • 19
    Young KM, Northern JJ, Lister KM, Drummond JA, O’Brien WH. A meta-analysis of family-behavioral weight-loss treatments for children. Clin Psychol Rev 2007: 27: 240249.
  • 20
    Saksvig BI, Gittelsohn J, Harris SB, Hanley AJ, Valente TW, Zinman B. A pilot school-based healthy eating and physical activity intervention improves diet, food knowledge, and self-efficacy for native Canadian children. J Nutr 2005: 135: 23922398.
  • 21
    Paradis G, Levesque L, Macaulay AC et al. Impact of a diabetes prevention program on body size, physical activity, and diet among kanien’keha:Ka (mohawk) children 6 to 11 years old: 8-year results from the Kahnawake schools diabetes prevention project. Pediatrics 2005: 115: 333339.
  • 22
    Potvin L, Cargo M, McComber AM, Delormier T, Macaulay AC. Implementing participatory intervention and research in communities: lessons from the Kahnawake schools diabetes prevention project in Canada. Soc Sci Med 2003: 56: 12951305.
  • 23
    McComber AM, Macaulay AC, Kirby R, Desrosiers S, Cross EJ, Saad-Haddad C. The Kahnawake schools diabetes prevention project: community participation in a diabetes primary prevention research project. Int J Circumpolar Health 1998: 57 (Suppl. 1): 370374.
  • 24
    Macaulay AC, Paradis G, Potvin L et al. The Kahnawake schools diabetes prevention project: intervention, evaluation, and baseline results of a diabetes primary prevention program with a native community in Canada. Prev Med 1997: 26: 779790.
  • 25
    Ritenbaugh C, Teufel-Shone NI, Aickin MG et al. A lifestyle intervention improves plasma insulin levels among native American high school youth. Prev Med 2003: 36: 309319.
  • 26
    Shaw-Perry M, Horner C, Trevino RP, Sosa ET, Hernandez I, Bhardwaj A. NEEMA: a school-based diabetes risk prevention program designed for African-American children. J Natl Med Assoc 2007: 99: 368375.
  • 27
    Rosenbaum M, Nonas C, Weil R et al. School-based intervention acutely improves insulin sensitivity and decreases inflammatory markers and body fatness in junior high school students. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007: 92: 504508.
  • 28
    Grey M, Berry D, Davidson M, Galasso P, Gustafson E, Melkus G. Preliminary testing of a program to prevent type 2 diabetes among high-risk youth. J Sch Health 2004: 74: 1015.
  • 29
    Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D, French S. Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors. J Am Diet Assoc 2002: 102 (3 Suppl.): S40S51.
  • 30
    French SA, Story M, Jeffery RW. Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. Annu Rev Public Health 2001: 22: 309335.
  • 31
    Moreno LA, Rodriguez G. Dietary risk factors for development of childhood obesity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2007: 10: 336341.
  • 32
    Brantley PJ, Myers VH, Roy HJ. Environmental and lifestyle influences on obesity. J La State Med Soc 2005: 157: S19S27.
  • 33
    Drewnowski A, Specter SE. Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs. Am J Clin Nutr 2004: 79: 616.
  • 34
    Franco M, Brancati F, Diez-Roux A. The JECH gallery. money orders and alcohol yes; fruits, vegetables and skimmed milk no. J Epidemiol Community Health 2007: 61: 94.
  • 35
    James WP, Nelson M, Ralph A, Leather S. Socioeconomic determinants of health. The contribution of nutrition to inequalities in health. BMJ 1997: 314: 15451549.
  • 36
    Jetter KM, Cassady DL. The availability and cost of healthier food alternatives. Am J Prev Med 2006: 30: 3844.
  • 37
    Morland K, Wing S, Diez Roux A. The contextual effect of the local food environment on residents’ diets: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Am J Public Health 2002: 92: 17611767.
  • 38
    US Houseof Representatives Select Committeeon Hunger. Urban Grocery Gap. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office 1992: 2021.
  • 39
    Shaffer A. Persistence of L.A.’s Grocery Gap: The Need for a New Food Policy and Approach to Market Development. Center of Food and Justice, Urban and Environmental Policy Institute, UEPI Publications: Los Angeles, 2002.
  • 40
    Nielsen SJ, Siega-Riz AM, Popkin BM. Trends in food locations and sources among adolescents and young adults. Prev Med 2002: 35: 107113.
  • 41
    Shepherd J, Harden A, Rees R et al. Young people and healthy eating: a systematic review of research on barriers and facilitators. Health Educ Res 2006: 21: 239257.
  • 42
    Striegel-Moore RH, Thompson DR, Affenito SG et al. Fruit and vegetable intake: few adolescent girls meet national guidelines. Prev Med 2006: 42: 223228.
  • 43
    Befort C, Kaur H, Nollen N et al. Fruit, vegetable, and fat intake among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white adolescents: associations with home availability and food consumption settings. J Am Diet Assoc 2006: 106: 367373.
  • 44
    Lytle LA, Seifert S, Greenstein J, McGovern P. How do children’s eating patterns and food choices change over time? results from a cohort study. Am J Health Promot 2000: 14: 222228.
  • 45
    James J, Kerr D. Prevention of childhood obesity by reducing soft drinks. Int J Obes (Lond) 2005: 29 (Suppl. 2): S54S57.
  • 46
    Austin SB, Melly SJ, Sanchez BN, Patel A, Buka S, Gortmaker SL. Clustering of fast-food restaurants around schools: a novel application of spatial statistics to the study of food environments. Am J Public Health 2005: 95: 15751581.
  • 47
    Bowman SA, Gortmaker SL, Ebbeling CB, Pereira MA, Ludwig DS. Effects of fast-food consumption on energy intake and diet quality among children in a national household survey. Pediatrics 2004: 113: 112118.
  • 48
    Schmidt M, Affenito SG, Striegel-Moore R et al. Fast-food intake and diet quality in black and white girls: the national heart, lung, and blood institute growth and health study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005: 159: 626631.
  • 49
    Economos CD, Irish-Hauser S. Community interventions: a brief overview and their application to the obesity epidemic. J Law Med Ethics 2007: 35: 131137.
  • 50
    Verheijden MW, Kok FJ. Public health impact of community-based nutrition and lifestyle interventions. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005: 59 (Suppl. 1): S66, 75; discussion S76.
  • 51
    Economos CD, Hyatt RR, Goldberg JP et al. A community intervention reduces BMI z-score in children: shape up Somerville first year results. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007: 15: 13251336.
  • 52
    Gittelsohn J, Steckler A, Johnson CC et al. Formative research in school and community-based health programs and studies: ‘state of the art’ and the TAAG approach. Health Educ Behav 2006: 33: 2539.
  • 53
    Young DR, Johnson CC, Steckler A et al. Data to action: using formative research to develop intervention programs to increase physical activity in adolescent girls. Health Educ Behav 2006: 33: 97111.
  • 54
    Kumanyika SK, Story M, Beech BM et al. Collaborative planning for formative assessment and cultural appropriateness in the girls health enrichment multi-site studies (GEMS): a retrospection. Ethn Dis 2003: 13 (1 Suppl. 1): S15S29.
  • 55
    Gittelsohn J, Evans M, Story M et al. Multisite formative assessment for the pathways study to prevent obesity in American Indian school children. Am J Clin Nutr 1999: 69 (4 Suppl): 767S772S.
  • 56
    Gittelsohn J, Dyckman W, Tan ML et al. Development and implementation of a food store-based intervention to improve diet in the republic of the Marshall Islands. Health Promot Pract 2006: 7: 396405.
  • 57
    Gittelsohn J, Davis SM, Steckler A et al. Pathways: lessons learned and future directions for school-based interventions among American Indians. Prev Med 2003: 37: S107S112.
  • 58
    Baranowski T, Smith M, Hearn MD et al. Patterns in children’s fruit and vegetable consumption by meal and day of the week. J Am Coll Nutr 1997: 16: 216223.
  • 59
    Rimal RN. Intergenerational transmission of health: the role of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and communicative factors. Health Educ Behav 2003: 30: 1028.
  • 60
    Golley RK, Magarey AM, Baur LA, Steinbeck KS, Daniels LA. Twelve-month effectiveness of a parent-led, family-focused weight-management program for prepubertal children: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2007: 119: 517525.
  • 61
    Campbell K, Waters E, O’Meara S, Summerbell C. Interventions for preventing obesity in childhood. A systematic review. Obes Rev 2001: 2: 149157.
  • 62
    Reilly JJ, McDowell ZC. Physical activity interventions in the prevention and treatment of paediatric obesity: systematic review and critical appraisal. Proc Nutr Soc 2003: 62: 611619.
  • 63
    Bautista-Castano I, Doreste J, Serra-Majem L. Effectiveness of interventions in the prevention of childhood obesity. Eur J Epidemiol 2004: 19: 617622.
  • 64
    Caballero B. Obesity prevention in children: opportunities and challenges. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004: 28 (Suppl. 3): S90S95.
  • 65
    Summerbell CD, Waters E, Edmunds LD, Kelly S, Brown T, Campbell KJ. Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005: 3: CD001871.
  • 66
    Pyle SA, Sharkey J, Yetter G, Felix E, Furlong MJ, Poston CWS. Psychol Sch 2006: 43: 361376.
  • 67
    Flodmark CE, Marcus C, Britton M. Interventions to prevent obesity in children and adolescents: a systematic literature review. Int J Obes (Lond) 2006: 30: 579589.
  • 68
    Cole K, Waldrop J, D’Auria J, Garner H. An integrative research review: effective school-based childhood overweight interventions. J Spec Pediatr Nurs 2006: 11: 166177.
  • 69
    Sharma M. International school-based interventions for preventing obesity in children. Obes Rev 2007: 8: 155167.
  • 70
    DeMattia L, Lemont L, Meurer L. Do interventions to limit sedentary behaviours change behaviour and reduce childhood obesity? A critical review of the literature. Obes Rev 2007: 8: 6981.
  • 71
    Ho LS, Gittelsohn J, Harris SB, Ford E. Development of an integrated diabetes prevention program with first nations in Canada. Health Promot Int 2006: 21: 8897.