• 1
    Roberts L, Jones TW, Fournier PA. Exercise training and glycemic control in adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2002: 15: 621627.
  • 2
    Sarnblad S, Ekelund U, Aman J. Physical activity and energy intake in adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med 2005: 22: 893899.
  • 3
    Ligtenberg PC, Blans M, Hoekstra JB, Van Der Tweel I, Erkelens DW. No effect of long-term physical activity on the glycemic control in type 1 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional study. Neth J Med 1999: 55: 5963.
  • 4
    Riddell M, Perkins B. Type 1 diabetes and vigorous exercise: applications of exercise physiology to patient management. Can J Diab 2006: 30: 6371.
  • 5
    Nordfeldt S, Ludvigsson J. Fear and other disturbances of severe hypoglycaemia in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2005: 18: 8391.
  • 6
    Temple MY, Bar-Or O, Riddell MC. The reliability and repeatability of the blood glucose response to prolonged exercise in adolescent boys with IDDM. Diabetes Care 1995: 18: 326332.
  • 7
    Petersen KF, Price TB, Bergeron R. Regulation of net hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis during exercise: impact of type 1 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004: 89: 46564664.
  • 8
    Komatsu WR, Gabbay MA, Castro ML et al. Aerobic exercise capacity in normal adolescents and those with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Diabetes 2005: 6: 145149.
  • 9
    Arslanian S, Nixon PA, Becker D, Drash AL. Impact of physical fitness and glycemic control on in vivo insulin action in adolescents with IDDM. Diabetes Care 1990: 13: 915.
  • 10
    Guelfi KJ, Jones TW, Fournier PA. The decline in blood glucose levels is less with intermittent high-intensity compared with moderate exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005: 28: 12891294.
  • 11
    Bussau VA, Ferreira LD, Jones TW, Fournier PA. The 10-s maximal sprint: a novel approach to counter an exercise-mediated fall in glycemia in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006: 29: 601606.
  • 12
    Wanke T, Auinger M, Formanek D et al. Defective endogenous opioid response to exercise in type I diabetic patients. Metabolism 1996: 45: 137142.
  • 13
    Riddell MC, Bar-Or O, Gerstein HC, Heigenhauser GJ. Perceived exertion with glucose ingestion in adolescent males with IDDM. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000: 32: 167173.
  • 14
    Bar-Or O, Ward S. Rating of perceived exertion in children. In: Bar-OrO, ed. Advances in Pediatric Sports Sciences. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1989: 151168.
  • 15
    Tuominen JA, Karonen SL, Melamies L, Bolli G, Koivisto VA. Exercise-induced hypoglycaemia in IDDM patients treated with a short-acting insulin analogue. Diabetologia 1995: 38: 106111.
  • 16
    Riddell M, Iscoe K. Physical activity, sport, and pediatric diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes 2006: 7: 6070.
  • 17
    Hernandez JM, Moccia T, Fluckey JD, Ulbrecht JS, Farrell PA. Fluid snacks to help persons with type 1 diabetes avoid late onset postexercise hypoglycemia. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000: 32: 904910.
  • 18
    Frid A, Ostman J, Linde B. Hypoglycemia risk during exercise after intramuscular injection of insulin in thigh in IDDM. Diabetes Care 1990: 13: 473477.
  • 19
    Berger M, Cuppers HJ, Hegner H, Jorgens V, Berchtold P. Absorption kinetics and biologic effects of subcutaneously injected insulin preparations. Diabetes Care 1982: 5: 7791.
  • 20
    Rave K, Heise T, Weyer C et al. Intramuscular versus subcutaneous injection of soluble and lispro insulin: comparison of metabolic effects in healthy subjects. Diabet Med 1998: 15: 747751.
  • 21
    Peter R, Luzio SD, Dunseath G et al. Effects of exercise on the absorption of insulin glargine in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005: 28: 560565.
  • 22
    Bernardini AL, Vanelli M, Chiari G et al. Adherence to physical activity in young people with type 1 diabetes. Acta Biomed 2004: 75: 153157.
  • 23
    Poortmans JR, Saerens P, Edelman R, Vertongen F, Dorchy H. Influence of the degree of metabolic control on physical fitness in type I diabetic adolescents. Int J Sports Med 1986: 7: 232235.
  • 24
    Ebeling P, Tuominen JA, Bourey R, Koranyi L, Koivisto VA. Athletes with IDDM exhibit impaired metabolic control and increased lipid utilization with no increase in insulin sensitivity. Diabetes 1995: 44: 471477.
  • 25
    Borghouts LB, Keizer HA. Exercise and insulin sensitivity: a review. Int J Sports Med 2000: 21: 112.
  • 26
    Gulve EA, Spina RJ. Effect of 7-10 days of cycle ergometer exercise on skeletal muscle GLUT-4 protein content. J Appl Physiol 1995: 79: 15621566.
  • 27
    Mikines KJ, Sonne B, Tronier B, Galbo H. Effects of acute exercise and detraining on insulin action in trained men. J Appl Physiol 1989: 66: 704711.
  • 28
    McMahon SK, Ferreira LD, Ratnam N et al. Glucose requirements to maintain euglycemia after moderate-intensity afternoon exercise in adolescents with type 1 diabetes are increased in a biphasic manner. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007: 92: 963968.
  • 29
    Berardi JM, Price TB, Noreen EE, Lemon PW. Postexercise muscle glycogen recovery enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006: 38: 11061113.
  • 30
    Perkins B, Riddell M. Type 1 diabetes and exercise: using the insulin pump to maximum advantage. Can J Diab 2006: 30: 7280.
  • 31
    Sandoval DA, Guy DL, Richardson MA, Ertl AC, Davis SN. Effects of low and moderate antecedent exercise on counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2004: 53: 17981806.
  • 32
    Galassetti P, Tate D, Neill RA, Morrey S, Wasserman DH, Davis SN. Effect of antecedent hypoglycemia on counterregulatory responses to subsequent euglycemic exercise in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2003: 52: 17611769.
  • 33
    Tansey MJ, Tsalikian E, Beck RW et al. The effects of aerobic exercise on glucose and counterregulatory hormone concentrations in children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006: 29: 2025.
  • 34
    Riddell MC, Bar-Or O, Ayub BV, Calvert RE, Heigenhauser GJ. Glucose ingestion matched with total carbohydrate utilization attenuates hypoglycemia during exercise in adolescents with IDDM. Int J Sport Nutr 1999: 9: 2434.
  • 35
    MacDonald MJ. Postexercise late-onset hypoglycemia in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1987: 10: 584588.
  • 36
    Tsalikian E, Mauras N, Beck RW et al. Impact of exercise on overnight glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr 2005: 147: 528534.
  • 37
    Adolfsson P, Lindblad B. Glucose monitoring during various types of physical exercise in adolescents with diabetes. J PEM 2002: 15 (Suppl. 4): PP 1 (Poster).
  • 38
    Sane T, Helve E, Pelkonen R, Koivisto VA. The adjustment of diet and insulin dose during long-term endurance exercise in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic men. Diabetologia 1988: 31: 3540.
  • 39
    Frohnauer M, Liu K, Devlin J. Adjustment of basal lispro insulin in CSII to minimize glycemic fluctuations caused by exercise. Diab Res Clin Pract 2000: 50 (Suppl. 1): S80 (Abstract).
  • 40
    Admon G, Weinstein Y, Falk B et al. Exercise with and without an insulin pump among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics 2005: 116: e348e355.
  • 41
    Marliss EB, Vranic M. Intense exercise has unique effects on both insulin release and its roles in glucoregulation: implications for diabetes. Diabetes 2002: 51(Suppl. 1): S271S283.
  • 42
    Mitchell TH, Abraham G, Schiffrin A, Leiter LA, Marliss EB. Hyperglycemia after intense exercise in IDDM subjects during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetes Care 1988: 11: 311317.
  • 43
    Wahren J, Felig P, Hagenfeldt L. Physical exercise and fuel homeostasis in diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 1978: 14: 213222.
  • 44
    Guerci B, Tubiana-Rufi N, Bauduceau B et al. Advantages to using capillary blood beta-hydroxybutyrate determination for the detection and treatment of diabetic ketosis. Diabetes Metab 2005: 31: 401406.
  • 45
    Laffel L. Ketone bodies: a review of physiology, pathophysiology and application of monitoring to diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 1999: 15: 412426.
  • 46
    Samuelsson U, Ludvigsson J. When should determination of ketonemia be recommended? Diabetes Technol Ther 2002: 4: 645650.
  • 47
    Laffel LM, Wentzell K, Loughlin C, Tovar A, Moltz K, Brink S. Sick day management using blood 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) compared with urine ketone monitoring reduces hospital visits in young people with T1DM: a randomized clinical trial. Diabet Med 2006: 23: 278284.
  • 48
    Siler SQ, Neese RA, Christiansen MP, Hellerstein MK. The inhibition of gluconeogenesis following alcohol in humans. Am J Physiol 1998: 275: E897E907.
  • 49
    Plougmann S, Hejlesen O, Turner B, Kerr D, Cavan D. The effect of alcohol on blood glucose in type 1 diabetes – metabolic modelling and integration in a decision support system. Int J Med Inform 2003: 70: 337344.
  • 50
    Turner BC, Jenkins E, Kerr D, Sherwin RS, Cavan DA. The effect of evening alcohol consumption on next-morning glucose control in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2001: 24: 18881893.
  • 51
    Avogaro A, Beltramello P, Gnudi L et al. Alcohol intake impairs glucose counterregulation during acute insulin-induced hypoglycemia in IDDM patients. Evidence for a critical role of free fatty acids. Diabetes 1993: 42: 16261634.
  • 52
    Wilk B, Yuxia H, Bar-Or O. Effect of body hypohydration on aerobic performance of boys who exercise in the heat. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002: 34 (Suppl. 1).
  • 53
    Petrie HJ, Stover EA, Horswill CA. Nutritional concerns for the child and adolescent competitor. Nutrition 2004: 20: 620631.
  • 54
    Whincup G, Milner RD. Prediction and management of nocturnal hypoglycaemia in diabetes. Arch Dis Child 1987: 62: 333337.
  • 55
    Oberg D, Ostenson CG. Performance of glucose dehydrogenase- and glucose oxidase-based blood glucose meters at high altitude and low temperature. Diabetes Care 2005: 28: 1261.
  • 56
    Welch IM, Bruce C, Hill SE, Read NW. Duodenal and ileal lipid suppresses postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses in man: possible implications for the dietary management of diabetes mellitus. Clin Sci (Lond) 1987: 72: 209216.
  • 57
    Santiprabhob J, Likitmaskul S, Sriwijitkamol A et al. Improved glycemic control among Thai children and young adults with type 1 diabetes participating in the diabetes camp. J Med Assoc Thai 2005: 88 (Suppl. 8): S38S43.
  • 58
    Post EM, Moore JD, Ihrke J, Aisenberg J. Fructosamine levels demonstrate improved glycemic control for some children attending a diabetes summer camp. Pediatr Diabetes 2000: 1: 204208.
  • 59
    Strickland AL, McFarland KF, Murtiashaw MH, Thorpe SR, Baynes JW. Changes in blood protein glycosylation during a diabetes summer camp. Diabetes Care 1984: 7: 183185.
  • 60
    Braatvedt GD, Mildenhall L, Patten C, Harris G. Insulin requirements and metabolic control in children with diabetes mellitus attending a summer camp. Diabet Med 1997: 14: 258261.
  • 61
    Moore K, Vizzard N, Coleman C, McMahon J, Hayes R, Thompson CJ. Extreme altitude mountaineering and type 1 diabetes; the Diabetes Federation of Ireland Kilimanjaro Expedition. Diabet Med 2001: 18: 749755.
  • 62
    Bryson P, Edge C, Lindsay D, Willshurst P. The case for diving diabetics. SPUMS 1994: 24: 1113.
  • 63
    Davies D. SPUMS statement on diabetes. SPUMS 1992: 22: 3132.
  • 64
    PollockN, UggucioniD, DearG, eds. Diabetes and Recreational Diving: Guidelines for the Future. In Proceedings of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society/Divers Alert Network June 19, 2005 workshop. Durham: Divers Alert Nework, 2005.
  • 65
    Dear G, Pollock NW, Uguccioni DM, Dovenbarger J, Feinglos MN, Moon RE. Plasma glucose responses in recreational divers with insulin-requiring diabetes. Undersea Hyperb Med 2004: 31: 291301.
  • 66
    Pollock NW, Uguccioni DM, Dear G, Bates S, Albushies TM, Prosterman SA. Plasma glucose response to recreational diving in novice teenage divers with insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus. Undersea Hyperb Med 2006: 33: 125133.
  • 67
    Edge CJ, St Leger Dowse M, Bryson P. Scuba diving with diabetes mellitus – the UK experience 1991-2001. Undersea Hyperb Med 2005: 32: 2737.
  • 68
    Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Solomon C et al. Physical activity and risk for cardiovascular events in diabetic women. Ann Intern Med 2001: 134: 96105.
  • 69
    Pinhas-Hamiel O, Standiford D, Hamiel D, Dolan LM, Cohen R, Zeitler PS. The type 2 family: a setting for development and treatment of adolescent type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999: 153: 10631067.
  • 70
    Shaibi GQ, Cruz ML, Ball GD et al. Effects of resistance training on insulin sensitivity in overweight Latino adolescent males. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006: 38: 12081215.
  • 71
    Lindstrom J, Louheranta A, Mannelin M et al. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS): Lifestyle intervention and 3-year results on diet and physical activity. Diabetes Care 2003: 26: 32303236.
  • 72
    Boule NG, Haddad E, Kenny GP, Wells GA, Sigal RJ. Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. JAMA 2001: 286: 12181227.
  • 73
    Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Wasserman DH, Castaneda-Sceppa C, White RD. Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes: a consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2006: 29: 14331438.
  • 74
    Zammitt NN, Frier BM. Hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes: pathophysiology, frequency, and effects of different treatment modalities. Diabetes Care 2005: 28: 29482961.
  • 75
    American Diabetes Association (Clinical Practice Recommendations). Physical activity/exercise and diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004: 27 (Suppl. 1): S58S62.
  • 76
    Wasserman DH, Zinman B. Exercise in individuals with IDDM. Diabetes Care 1994: 17: 924937.
  • 77
    Colberg S. The Diabetic Athlete. Prescriptions for Exercise and Sports. Chamapign: Human Kinetics, 2001.
  • 78
    Rabasa-Lhoret R, Bourque J, Ducros F, Chiasson JL. Guidelines for premeal insulin dose reduction for postprandial exercise of different intensities and durations in type 1 diabetic subjects treated intensively with a basal-bolus insulin regimen (ultralente-lispro). Diabetes Care 2001: 24: 625630.
  • 79
    Dorchy H, Poortmans JR. Juvenile diabetes and sports. In: Bar-OrO, ed. The Child and Adolescent Athlete. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 1996.