Perinatal risk factors for early childhood onset type 1 diabetes in Austria – a population-based study (1989–2005)

Authors

  • Thomas Waldhoer,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Epidemiology, Center of Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
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  • Birgit Rami,

    1. Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
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  • Edith Schober,

    1. Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
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  • the Austrian Diabetes Incidence Study Group

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    • *

      Members of the Austrian Diabetes Incidence Study Group: Arocker W, Bauer M, Baumgartner F, Bali C, Borkenstein M, Bittmann B, Dorninger L, Fussenegger J, Jäger A, Fink M, Fröhlich-Reiterer E, Guttenberger KH, Gruber A, Häckel F, Heijbl L, Höller H, Hofer S, Holzleitner Ch, Jahn Ch, Judtmaier S, Jürgenssen OA, Kersak J, Kovacs U, Kitzler P, Kovacic R, Kurnik P, Kuthan G, Lindauer E, Meszaros F, Mühleder J, Müller G, Müllner M, Paier R, Polland V, Prchla C, Püschel B, Rittinger O, Salzer H, Schermann P, Schlager J, Schmitt K, Schneider U, Scholtze M, Schorn Ch, Sickel E, Walser I, Wakolbinger G, and Zieglauer H.


Waldhoer Thomas
Department of Epidemiology
Center for Public Health
Borschkegasse 8a
1090 Vienna.
Tel: +43-1-4277-65182;
fax: +43-1-4277-65198;
e-mail: thomas.waldhoer@meduniwien.ac.at

Abstract

Background:  To investigate the rapid increase in incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children <5 yr in Austria.

Methods:  Data of children born between 1989 and 2005 (n = 444) from the T1DM children incidence registry were linked with birth certificates (n = 1 407 829).

Results:  Age of mother, level of education, birth weight, birth length, body mass index, and APGAR score at 10 min were not significant. Boys have about 25% higher risk than girls [hazard ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62–0.91]. The risk of developing diabetes increases over time significantly (1989–1991 vs. 2001–2005, hazard ratio = 2.86, 95% CI: 2.07–3.94). The linear effect of parity is borderline significant (p = 0.045), with lower risks for second and later born siblings. Marital status is significant [hazard ratio = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57–0.90)]. Native-born children exhibit twice as high risk as non-native children (hazard ratio = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.37–0.71). Birth weight shows a positive but not significant effect on risk of T1DM.

Conclusions:  In this very young and rapidly increasing cohort of diabetic children <5 yr of age, no association with birth weight but with year of birth, gestational age, nationality and parity could be observed.

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