Maternal food consumption during pregnancy and risk of advanced β-cell autoimmunity in the offspring
Article first published online: 7 SEP 2010
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S
Volume 12, Issue 2, pages 95–99, March 2011
How to Cite
Virtanen, S., Uusitalo, L., Kenward, M., Nevalainen, J., Uusitalo, U., Kronberg-Kippilä, C., Ovaskainen, M.-L., Arkkola, T., Niinistö, S., Hakulinen, T., Ahonen, S., Simell, O., Ilonen, J., Veijola, R. and Knip, M. (2011), Maternal food consumption during pregnancy and risk of advanced β-cell autoimmunity in the offspring. Pediatric Diabetes, 12: 95–99. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2010.00668.x
- Issue published online: 24 FEB 2011
- Article first published online: 7 SEP 2010
- Submitted 17 September 2009. Accepted for publication 11 March 2010
- diabetes mellitus;
- type 1;
Virtanen SM, Uusitalo L, Kenward MG, Nevalainen J, Uusitalo U, Kronberg-Kippilä C, Ovaskainen M-L, Arkkola T, Niinistö S, Hakulinen T, Ahonen S, Simell O, Ilonen J, Veijola R, Knip M. Maternal food consumption during pregnancy and risk of advanced β-cell autoimmunity in the offspring.
Background: Evidence for a putative role of maternal diet during pregnancy in the development of β-cell autoimmunity in the child is scarce. The authors study the association of food consumption during pregnancy and the development of β-cell autoimmunity in the offspring.
Subjects and methods: A prospective Finnish birth cohort of 4297 infants with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes and their mothers. Blood samples were collected from the children at 3–12 months intervals to measure type 1 diabetes-associated antibodies: antibodies against islet cells (ICA), insulin, glutamate dehydroxylase, and islet antigen 2. The mothers completed a validated food frequency questionnaire. The end-point was repeated positivity for ICA together with at least one of the other three antibodies. Piecewise-exponential survival models were used. The effective sample size was 3723, with 138 end-points. The median follow-up time was 4.4 years.
Results: Maternal consumption of butter, low-fat margarines, berries, and coffee were inversely associated with the development of advanced β-cell autoimmunity in the offspring, adjusted for genetic risk group and familial diabetes. These associations for low-fat margarines (use vs. non-use HR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.38–0.93, p = 0.02), berries (continuous variable HR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83–0.98, p = 0.02) and coffee (highest quarter vs. lowest HR 0.62, 95% CI: 0.40–0.97, p = 0.04), remained significant when adjusting for potential confounding sociodemographic, perinatal, and other dietary factors.
Conclusions: In this study assessing total food consumption of the mother during pregnancy, only few among the 27 food groups tested were weakly related to the development of advanced β-cell autoimmunity in Finnish children.