Salemyr J, Bang P, Örtqvist E. Lower HbA1c after 1 year, in children with type 1 diabetes treated with insulin glargine vs. NPH insulin from diagnosis: a retrospective study.
Objective: Insulin glargine offers sustained insulin delivery for 24 h. Change to glargine treatment consistently results in lower fasting glucose and fewer hypoglycemic episodes in children with type 1 diabetes compared to continuation of NPH, although glargine has not been shown to improve HbA1c in randomized trials. Studies comparing glargine and NPH in multiple injection therapy in children treated from diagnosis of type 1 diabetes are lacking.
Methods: HbA1c and insulin requirement were compared in a retrospective study of children (7–17 yr of age) with type 1 diabetes treated from diagnosis with basal insulin glargine (n = 49) or NPH (n = 49) in a multiple injection therapy (MIT) regimen with a rapid-acting insulin analogue. Patients were followed every third month for 1 yr. HbA1c, insulin dose, and weight data were retrieved.
Results: HbA1c (mean ± SD) was lower at 3–5 months (5.5 ± 0.89 vs. 6.2 ± 0.89%, p < 0.05) and 6–9 months (5.6 ± 1.14 vs. 6.6 ± 0.99%; p < 0.001) in glargine treated. After 12 months, HbA1c was significantly lower in glargine treated (6.3 ± 1.56 vs. 7.1 ± 1.28; p < 0.01). Reported total insulin doses were similar at nadir (0.5 U/kg BW × 24 h), but significantly lower at 12 months in glargine treated (0.64 ± 0.23 vs. 0.86 ± 0.3 U/kg BW × 24 h; p < 0.001).
Conclusions: HbA1c 1 yr from diagnosis was lower in children treated with glargine from start as compared with those on NPH. This observation should be viewed in the light of a significantly lower dose of total daily insulin in the glargine group.