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Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with metabolic risk in adolescents: the HELENA study

Authors

  • Enrique G Artero,

    Corresponding author
    1. EFFECTS-262 Research Group, Department of Medical Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada 18012, Spain
    2. Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, USA
      Enrique G. Artero, EFFECTS-262 Research Group, Department of Medical Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Avd. de Madrid s/n, Granada 18012, Spain.
      Tel: +34-958-24-35-40;
      fax: +34-958-24-90-15;
      e-mail: artero@ugr.es
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  • Jonatan R Ruiz,

    1. Department of Physical Education and Sport, School of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada 18011, Spain
    2. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at NOVUM, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 14183, Sweden
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  • Francisco B Ortega,

    1. EFFECTS-262 Research Group, Department of Medical Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada 18012, Spain
    2. Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at NOVUM, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 14183, Sweden
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  • Vanesa España-Romero,

    1. EFFECTS-262 Research Group, Department of Medical Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada 18012, Spain
    2. Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, USA
    3. Exercise Science Laboratory, Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI 49855, USA
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  • Germán Vicente-Rodríguez,

    1. GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50009, Spain
    2. Faculty of Health and Sport Science (FCSD), Department of Physiotherapy and Nursing, University of Zaragoza, Huesca 22002, Spain
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  • Dénes Molnar,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, University of Pécs, Pécs 7623, Hungary
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  • Frederic Gottrand,

    1. Inserm U995, IFR114, University of Lille2, Lille 59037, France
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  • Marcela González-Gross,

    1. Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040, Spain
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  • Christina Breidenassel,

    1. Research Institute of Child Nutrition, Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitat Bonn, Dortmund 44225, Germany
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  • Luis A Moreno,

    1. GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50009, Spain
    2. School of Health Science (EUCS), Department of Physiotherapy and Nursing, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50009, Spain
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  • Angel Gutiérrez,

    1. EFFECTS-262 Research Group, Department of Medical Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada 18012, Spain
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  • on behalf of the HELENA Study Group

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    • The writing group takes sole responsibility for the content of this article.


Enrique G. Artero, EFFECTS-262 Research Group, Department of Medical Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Avd. de Madrid s/n, Granada 18012, Spain.
Tel: +34-958-24-35-40;
fax: +34-958-24-90-15;
e-mail: artero@ugr.es

Abstract

Artero EG, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, España-Romero V, Vicente-Rodríguez G, Molnar D, Gottrand F, González-Gross M, Breidenassel C, Moreno LA, Gutiérrez A; on behalf of the HELENA Study Group. Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with metabolic risk in adolescents: the HELENA study.

Objective: To examine the independent associations of muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness with clustered metabolic risk in adolescents.

Methods: Participants were 709 adolescents (346 boys) from 10 European centers, aged 12.5–17.5 yr, evaluated as a part of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescents cross-sectional study (HELENA-CSS). A muscular fitness score was computed using handgrip strength and standing long jump. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using the 20-m shuttle run test. Age- and gender-specific z-scores of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, ratio total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment) were summed to create a metabolic risk score.

Results: Muscular fitness was negatively associated with clustered metabolic risk independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (β = −0.249, p < 0.001). Independent of muscular fitness, an inverse association was also found between cardiorespiratory fitness and clustered metabolic risk (β = 0.264, p < 0.001). The odds ratios for having a high clustered risk (above or equal 1 standard deviation) were 5.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.6–10.6] and 4.3 (95% CI = 2.0–9.3) in the least fit quartile compared with the most fit quartile for muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness, respectively. Significant differences in metabolic risk between muscular fitness levels persisted among non-overweight (p = 0.012) and overweight participants (p = 0.011).

Conclusion: Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with metabolic risk in adolescents. These results support current physical activity recommendations for youth, which include muscle strengthening activities in addition to aerobic exercise.

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