• CGM;
  • T1D;
  • young children


To examine the feasibility of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use in very young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D).

Research design and methods

Twenty-three children less than 4 yr of age with T1D were provided with a FreeStyle Navigator® (n = 21) or a Paradigm® (n = 2) CGM device. At baseline, mean age was 3.0 ± 0.8 yr, mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was 8.0 ± 0.8%, 10 were using an insulin pump and 13 were on multiple daily injections. CGM use was evaluated over a 6-month period.


Three children dropped out of the study before the end of 6 months. Among the 20 children who completed 6 months of follow-up, CGM use in month 6 was ≥6 d/wk in 9 (45%), 4 ≤ 6 d/wk in 2 (10%), and <4 d/wk in 9 (45%). Skin reactions were minimal. Although there was no detectable change in mean HbA1c between baseline and 6 months (7.9 and 8.0%, respectively), there was a high degree of parental satisfaction with CGM as measured on the CGM satisfaction scale questionnaire. A high percentage of glucose values were in the hyperglycemic range, and biochemical hypoglycemia was infrequent.


More than 40% of very young children were able to safely use CGM on a near-daily basis after 6 months. CGM demonstrated frequent hyperglycemic excursions, with a large variability in glucose readings. Although improvement in glycemic control was not detected in the group as a whole, parental satisfaction with CGM was high.