Heterozygous mutations of TCF2 (transcription factor 2) have been associated with maturity onset diabetes of the young, renal malformations, hyperuricemia, and occasionally internal genital malformations in female. We report a female patient with bilateral renal hypodysplasia and de novo heterozygous TCF2 gene mutation. At the age of 9 yr, she developed transient ketoacidosis immediately posttransplant, temporarily requiring insulin. During glucocorticoid tapering, impaired glucose tolerance persisted and overt insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus developed 1 yr later. Pathogenic factors which might have played a role in the acceleration of diabetes were (i) switch from cyclosporine to tacrolimus, (ii) weight excess, and (iii) cytomegalovirus infection. TCF2 analysis might, therefore, be of interest in patients with congenital abnormalities of the kidney and the urinary tract in order to improve posttransplant management in terms of steroid and tacrolimus exposure.